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I Was There: Boston Marathon Bombings - Juli and David

I Was There: Boston Marathon Bombings - Juli and David


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Watertown Man Who Found Boston Marathon Bomber In His Boat Dies

WATERTOWN (CBS) – The man who became a hero after finding Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev in his backyard in 2013 has died.

Dave Henneberry lived on Franklin Street in Watertown. On April 19, 2013, Boston and the surrounding areas had been shut down while police searched for Tsarnaev.

Just moments after authorities lifted the shelter-in-place order, Henneberry walked into his backyard and came face-to-face with Tsarnaev, who had been hiding in his boat, The Slipaway II.

The boat where Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was found hiding. (Image Credit: U.S. Attorney’s Office)

Here is a transcript of that call, which ended the 100-hour-long manhunt.

Henneberry: &ldquoI have a boat in my yard. There&rsquos blood all over the inside. There&rsquos a person in the boat.&rdquo

911 Operator: &ldquoAre you sure?&rdquo

Henneberry: &ldquoI just looked in the boat.&rdquo

911 Operator:&ldquoOK. Stay on the phone. Are you in the house? Stay in the house.&rdquo

Henneberry: &ldquoI just looked in it and I found something on the outside and I got nervous. And I looked in and I saw blood all over the floor of the boat and there&rsquos a body in the boat.&rdquo

911 Operator: &ldquoStay where you are.&rdquo

Henneberry:&ldquoHe&rsquos in the boat laying the floor. Climb up the ladder you can open the hatch. He&rsquos in the boat.&rdquo

911 Operator: &ldquoIs he alive?&rdquo

The call ended with Henneberry calmly telling the operator police were there.

Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev captured in Watertown. (Photo Credit: Boston Magazine)

Tsarnaev was taken into custody later that night. He was convicted and sentenced to death for his role in the 2013 bombings, which killed three people.

In an instant, Henneberry went from being an ordinary citizen to the man who stopped the infamous lockdown and one of the most intense manhunts in greater Boston history.

“If he didn’t do what he did, who knows what would’ve happened,&rdquo said retired Watertown Police Chief Ed Deveau. &ldquoThe search would have went on, he could have gotten away, so Dave deserves a lot of credit for what he did.”

Watertown boat owner David Henneberry found Dzhokhar Tsarnaev in his backyard. (WBZ-TV)

His neighbors are heartbroken. &ldquoPeople would drive by and stop in front of the house all the time as if it were a tourist attraction, but to us he was just the guy that we love,&rdquo said Lori Toye.

Dave Henneberry was later asked to be an extra in the marathon bombing movie “Patriots Day.”

&ldquoHere I was and little did I expect to be in the movie with a talking part to Mark Wahlberg,&rdquo he said in December 2016.

Henneberry didn&rsquot play himself, he took on the role of a neighbor. He was proud of how he is portrayed in the movie.

&ldquoMakes me feel good. I&rsquoll be represented good anyhow, the scene in the backyard,&rdquo he told WBZ-TV.

Henneberry died Wednesday. He was 70 years old.

He leaves two stepchildren, three grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.


Boston Marathon Runners Stand For Resilience, Patriotism, Two Years After Bombings

BOSTON (AP) -- It's been decades since you could run in the Boston Marathon without qualifying, before limits on the field size made entering - almost as much as finishing - something to aspire to.

The course has changed a dozen times or more. Women were officially welcomed in 1972, wheelchairs three years later, and prize money was introduced in 1986, ushering in a professional era that rejuvenated the event and fortified its status as the world's most prestigious road race.

But nothing in more than a century has done more to shape how the Boston Marathon is perceived and how it will look in the future than the twin explosions at the finish line in 2013.

And when the field of 30,000 leaves Hopkinton on Monday for the 119th race, the effect of those bombs will be seen not just in the ever-watchful security but in the way the runners and their supporters have responded to the unprecedented attack.

"I don't think it's ever going to be just a race again," said Desiree Linden, who returns this year in search of the American victory she missed by 2 seconds in 2011. "There's so much history here: some of it is good, some of it is bad. When you run Boston, that's always going to be a part of it."

Over the more than a century since the first Boston Marathon in 1897 until Lelisa Desisa won in 2013, the event transformed from a footrace among friends into one of the world's premier athletic contests.

But not until the bombings that killed three people and wounded 260 did the marathon became a touchstone for the resiliency of a city and its signature sporting event.

Last year's race became the centerpiece of the city's recovery, and the calls to take back the finish line were answered when Meb Keflezighi became the first American man to win since 1983.

"The marathon gods blessed Meb with that run. It was electric," said Shalane Flanagan, who finished seventh last year and hopes to break a 30-year drought in the women's race. "Last year was extremely special, just being an American. It's a run I'll never, ever forget."

A daughter of marathon runners, Flanagan grew up in suburban Marblehead with a reverence for the Boston race. Just to run it was life-changing, she said to win it would be an honor.

"Yeah, it was a race. But at the same time it was beyond a race, because of what was on the line," Keflezighi said this week as he prepared to defend his cathartic 2014 title.

"We can't get those people back it can never be forgotten. It can never be normal, because everyone's going to think about that moment. But we do what we can," said the two-time Olympic silver medalist who had written on last year's race bib the names of those killed.

Reminders of the April 15 bombings are still easy to find two years later.

Earlier this month, a federal court jury convicted Dzhokhar Tsarnaev of all 30 counts in the bombings and the manhunt, in which an MIT police officer was killed. Jurors will soon decide whether he should be sentenced to life in prison or to death.

Mayor Marty Walsh declared a day of remembrance and community called "One Boston Day." On race day, already the state holiday of Patriots' Day, the Boston Red Sox will wear special uniforms with the city's name on their chest.

Security along the route has been increased. More miles of fencing between the runners and the fans. More officers on bicycle. Runners will again pack their belongings in see-through bags. Spectators will be screened before entering the finish-line bleachers.

"In some ways the plan is even deeper this year than it was last year," said Kurt Schwartz, the Massachusetts undersecretary for homeland security. "Last year we built something completely new. We didn't get it 100 percent right, and we figured it out along the way."

Schwartz said officials have avoided more drastic measures, like creating a buffer zone between fans and the runners, or closing off certain areas of the course to spectators entirely. "It would just so fundamentally change the character of the day. It would be short-sighted," he said.

"Last year, we still put a million or more spectators along the course. They were right along the street's edge," Schwartz said. "I don't think the experience of the spectators or runners was significantly different last year."

Everything else has changed.

Amby Burfoot, who first ran in 1965 and won the 1968 race, has watched the event grow from fewer than 500 men to an international spectacle. He has seen East Africans dominate since the race turned professional, and the addition of women, who this year will fill a record 46 percent of the field.

And he has seen the race respond to an unprecedented attack.

"Last year was without question the greatest footrace in the history of humankind," said Burfoot, who is now an editor at Runner's World magazine. "Every runner and every spectator was a hero last year. We can't do that again. There's only one of those.

"This year is almost a return to the new normalcy."

Boston Athletic Association President Joanne Flaminio said there was so much pressure last year on everyone - organizers, competitors, security - to produce an event that would help people overcome the calamity.

"I think this year it's different. We're looking forward to a new chapter in our history and the next 100 years," Flaminio said.

Consistent through that history, before the bombs and after, are themes like patriotism and resilience. Of overcoming pain and injury. Of amateurs running for charity, or just to make it to the end.

"The bombing is part of the Boston Marathon history now," four-time winner Bill Rodgers said. "But I think the public got to see what the Boston Marathon really stands for, and how the Boston area came together.

"The healing is occurring that's what everyone wants. They want it to be a wonderful celebration, just like it has always been. And I think that's what's happening."


Marathon bombing caregivers honored in Boston

From left: RNs Julie Christopher, Eun Kim, and Sun Park were volunteers at the finish line on the day of the Boston Marathon Bombing. They were among those attending the 18th Annual Kenneth B. Schwartz Compassionate Health Care Dinner at the Boston Convention & Exhibition Center on Thursday. Essdras M. Suarez/ Globe Staff

Jeffrey Kalish was walking down Boylston Street to cheer for his wife as she heaved toward the finish line of the Boston Marathon. When the bombs detonated and the fleeing crowds began rushing toward him and his 9-year-old daughter, the doctor realized he had to get to work immediately.

The vascular surgeon found a friend to look after his daughter and hailed a pedicab, the only vehicles, aside from ambulances and police cruisers, moving down Massachusetts Avenue.

“I’m a surgeon at Boston Medical Center, and I need to get there very quickly,’’ he told the driver.

Kalish, who spent the following months treating some of the gravest wounds suffered during the April 15 bombings, was among more than 100 Marathon caregivers honored Thursday night by the Schwartz Center for Compassionate Healthcare, a nonprofit group based at Massachusetts General Hospital.


Boston Strong

Article by

David Abel

Tagged with

Juli Windsor and David Abel, behind her Suzanne Kreiter/The Boston Globe

A year ago, I was lapping up all Harvard had to offer, from poetry criticism with Helen Vendler to economic policy with Larry Summers. Even more compelling were my fellow fellows.

Last April, with the daffodils and tulips in bloom at Lippmann House, I didn’t know how abruptly my fellowship would end. On April 15, I was up before dawn to meet Juli Windsor, who at 3-foot-9 hoped to become the first dwarf to run the Boston Marathon. Making a documentary about her was the final project for my film class. After following Juli along the marathon course, I set up my camera at the finish line. She was due to cross at any moment.

Then I felt it. The street shuddered. I saw a flash of light and a cloud of smoke erupt fewer than 20 steps from me. I smelled sulfur and the shock wave pushed me back several steps.

Twelve seconds later, as I struggled to make sense of the growing pandemonium, I heard the second blast. Instantly, I knew what had happened.

In those fraught moments, my respite in academia ended. My hands shook as I filmed the horror and called in the first story about the attack to my colleagues at The Boston Globe, who posted my words, sentence by sentence, editing out my anger. Afterward, between calls from the BBC, CNN, and networks from New Zealand to Chile, I wrote a first-person account for the paper. My footage was viewed by tens of millions of people around the world.

Sleep wasn’t easy over the coming weeks, especially as I edited my film.

Over the following year, I told stories of the profound impact of that day. For six months I followed one family who suffered the worst of it. Their 8-year-old son died and their 7-year-old daughter lost a leg. The husband had severe ringing in his ears and the wife was blind in one eye. My two-part narrative about the Richard family, among the longest ever published in the paper, ran the Sunday before the anniversary and triggered thousands of messages, a response unlike any other story I’ve written.

The following day, my colleagues and I won the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News, which felt more like a Purple Heart and sparked more sadness than celebration. The next day, on the anniversary of the attack, I interviewed spectators, runners and others who had come back to stand where they had been the year before. That night, “25.7: In Twice the Steps,” the film I made as a fellow, was broadcast to a national audience on cable.

For the Marathon, the next Monday, I was up at dawn to meet Juli. This time I accompanied her every step of the way. Our hearts raced as we passed where the bombs had detonated and we crossed the finish line together, holding hands.

The next morning, despite the throbbing in my legs, there was one place I wanted to be more than anywhere else. Back at Lippmann House, the daffodils and tulips were in their full glory and I felt at peace as I limped inside.

The staff of The Boston Globe, including reporter David Abel, NF ’13 columnist Kevin Cullen, NF ’03 managing editor for news Christine Chinlund, NF ’98 and city editor Stephen Smith, NF ’00 was recognized with a 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News.


Contents

The 117th annual Boston Marathon was run on Patriots' Day, April 15, 2013. At 2:49 p.m. EDT (18:49 UTC) , two bombs detonated about 210 yards (190 m) apart at the finish line on Boylston Street near Copley Square. [20] [21] [22] [23] The first exploded outside Marathon Sports at 671–673 Boylston Street at 2:49:43 p.m. [20] At the time of the first explosion, the race clock at the finish line showed 04:09:43 [24] – the elapsed time since the Wave 3 start at 10:40 a.m. The second bomb exploded at 2:49:57 p.m., [21] [25] 14 seconds later and one block farther west at 755 Boylston Street. [7] The explosions took place nearly three hours after the winning runner crossed the finish line, [25] but with more than 5,700 runners yet to finish. [26]

Windows on adjacent buildings were blown out, but there was no structural damage. [25] [27] Runners continued to cross the line until 2:57 p.m. [28]

Rescue workers and medical personnel, on hand as usual for the marathon, gave aid as additional police, fire, and medical units were dispatched, [29] [30] including from surrounding cities as well as private ambulances from all over the state. The explosions killed 3 civilians and injured an estimated 264 others, who were treated at 27 local hospitals. At least 14 people required amputations, with some suffering traumatic amputations as a direct result of the blasts. [6]

Police, following emergency plans, diverted all remaining runners to Boston Common and Kenmore Square. The nearby Lenox Hotel and other buildings surrounding the scene were evacuated. [23] Immediately after the bombing occurred and medically injured people were transported, the police closed a 15-block area around the blast site this was reduced to a 12-block crime scene on April 16. [23] [27] [31] Boston police commissioner Edward F. Davis recommended that people stay off the streets. [27]

Dropped bags and packages, abandoned as their owners fled from the blasts, increased uncertainty as to the possible presence of more bombs [20] [32] and many false reports were received. [8] [23] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] Simultaneously an electrical fire at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library in nearby Dorchester was initially feared to be a bomb.

The airspace over Boston was restricted, and departures halted from Boston's Logan International Airport. [38] Some local transit service was halted as well. [25]

The Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency suggested people trying to contact those in the vicinity use text messaging instead of voice calls because of crowded cellphone lines. [25] Cellphone service in Boston was congested but remained in operation, despite some local media reports stating that cell service was shut down to prevent cell phones from being used as detonators. [39]

The American Red Cross helped concerned friends and family receive information about runners and casualties. [40] [41] The Boston Police Department also set up a helpline for people concerned about relatives or acquaintances to contact and a line for people to provide information. [42] Google Person Finder activated their disaster service under Boston Marathon Explosions to log known information about missing people as a publicly viewable file. [43]

Due to the closure of several hotels near the blast zone, a number of visitors were left with nowhere to stay many Boston-area residents opened their homes to them. [44]

The Federal Bureau of Investigation led the investigation, assisted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Counterterrorism Center, and the Drug Enforcement Administration. [45] It was initially believed by some that North Korea was behind the attack after escalating tensions and threats with the U.S. [46] [47]

United States government officials stated that there had been no intelligence reports suggesting such an attack. Representative Peter King, a member of the House Intelligence Committee, said: "I received two top secret briefings last week on the current threat levels in the United States, and there was no evidence of this at all." [48]

After being identified, the father of the two suspects claimed that the FBI had been watching his family. He stated that they visited his sons' home in Cambridge, Massachusetts five times, most recently in 2011, as "preventive work. afraid there might be some explosions on the streets of Boston." [49]

Evidence found near the blast sites included bits of metal, nails, ball bearings, [50] black nylon pieces from a backpack, [51] remains of an electronic circuit board, and wiring. [50] [52] A pressure cooker lid was found on a nearby rooftop. [53] Both of the improvised explosive devices were pressure cooker bombs manufactured by the bombers. [54] [55] [56] Authorities confirmed that the brothers used bomb-making instructions found in Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula's Inspire magazine. [57] [58] After the suspects were identified, The Boston Globe reported that Tamerlan purchased fireworks from a fireworks store in New Hampshire. [59]

On April 19, the FBI, West New York Police Department, and Hudson County Sheriff's Department seized computer equipment from the apartment of the Tsarnaevs' sister in West New York, New Jersey. [60] On April 24, investigators reported that they had reconstructed the bombs, and believed that they had been triggered by remote controls used for toy cars. [61]

  • Shooting:9mmRuger P95 semi-automatic pistol
  • Firefight:
  • 9mm Ruger P95 semi-automatic pistol
  • Stolen Mercedes-Benz M-Class SUV
  • Dzhokhar Tsarnaev (sentenced to death sentence overturned July 2020) [2]
  • Tamerlan Tsarnaev (deceased)

Release of suspect photos Edit

Jeff Bauman was immediately adjacent to one of the bombs and lost both legs he wrote while in the hospital: "Bag, saw the guy, looked right at me". [66] He later gave a detailed description of the suspects, which enabled images of them to be identified and circulated quickly. [66] [67] [68]

At 5:20 p.m. on April 18, the FBI released images of two suspects carrying backpacks, asking the public's help in identifying them. [69] [70] The FBI said that they were doing this in part to limit harm to people wrongly identified by news reports and on social-media. [71] As seen on video, the suspects stayed to observe the chaos after the explosions, then walked away casually. The public sent authorities a deluge of photographs and videos, which were scrutinized by both authorities and online public social networks. [70]

MIT shooting and carjacking Edit

Around 7:40 pm, a few hours after the photos were released, the Tsarnaev brothers ambushed and shot Sean A. Collier of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Police Department six times [72] in an attempt to steal his Smith & Wesson M&P45 sidearm, which they could not free from his holster because of its retention system. [73] Collier, aged 27, was seated in his police car near the Building 32 on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus. [15] [74] He died soon after. [15] [75]

The brothers then carjacked a Mercedes-Benz M-Class SUV in the Allston-Brighton neighborhood of Boston. Tamerlan took the owner, Chinese national Dun "Danny" Meng [76] (Chinese: 孟盾 ), [77] hostage and told him that he was responsible for the Boston bombing and for killing a police officer. [15] Dzhokhar followed them in their green Honda Civic, later joining them in the Mercedes-Benz. Interrogation later revealed that the brothers "decided spontaneously" that they wanted to go to New York and bomb Times Square. [78]

The Tsarnaev brothers forced Meng to use his ATM cards to obtain $800 in cash. [79] [80] They transferred objects to the Mercedes-Benz and one brother followed it in their Civic, [81] for which an all-points bulletin was issued. The Tsarnaev brothers then drove to a Shell gas station to fill up for a long ride to Times Square, New York City to set off more explosives. But while Dzhokhar went inside to pay for junkfood, Meng, fearing that the suspects would harm him during the long drive, escaped from the Mercedes and ran across the street to the Mobil gas station, asking the clerk to call 911. [82] [83] His cell phone remained in the vehicle, allowing the police to focus their search on Watertown. [84]

Watertown shootout Edit

Shortly after midnight on April 19, Watertown police officer Joseph Reynolds identified the brothers in the Honda and the stolen Mercedes after overhearing radio traffic that the vehicle was "pinged" by Cambridge officers on Dexter Avenue in Watertown. Reynolds followed the vehicle while waiting for additional units to perform a high-risk traffic stop when the suspect vehicles both turned onto Laurel Street and stopped at the intersection of Laurel and Dexter.

Tamerlan Tsarnaev stepped out of the Mercedes and immediately opened fire on Officer Reynolds and Sergeant John MacLellan, who both returned fire and requested emergency assistance over their radios. A violent gun battle ensued between Tsarnaev, the aforementioned officers, and subsequent additional police responding to the "shots fired" radio transmissions from Reynolds and MacLellan in the 100 block of Laurel St. [15] [85] [86] An estimated 200 to 300 rounds of ammunition were fired, 56 of which were later determined to have been fired from the suspects, and at least one pressure cooker bomb and several "crude grenades" were thrown. [86] [87]

The agencies involved in the nearly 7-minute long shootout included the Watertown Police Department, Cambridge Police Department, Boston Police Department, Massachusetts State Police (MSP), Boston University Police Department, and MBTA Transit Police Department. The majority of the officers involved in the shootout were equipped by their respective agencies with either the Glock 22 or Glock 23 .40 S&W-caliber pistols. MSP troopers were armed with Smith & Wesson M&P45 pistols chambered in .45 ACP this lead investigators to match the 9mm casings and projectiles found at the scene to the suspects' 9mm Ruger P95 pistol.

According to Watertown Police Chief Edward Deveau, the brothers had an "arsenal of guns." [88] Tamerlan eventually ran out of ammunition and threw his empty Ruger pistol at Watertown PD Sergeant Jeffrey Pugliese, who subsequently tackled him with assistance from Sergeant MacLellan. [89] [90]

Tamerlan's younger brother Dzhokhar then drove the stolen SUV toward Tamerlan and the police, who unsuccessfully tried to drag Tamerlan out of the car's path and cuff him [89] [90] the car ran over Tamerlan and dragged him a short distance down the street, narrowly missing the Watertown officers. Watertown Sgt. McClellan stated that the younger brother thought they were doing CPR on another officer and tried to run them over. [15] [89] [91] [92] Dzhokhar abandoned the car half a mile away and fled on foot. [15] [84] [93] [94] Badly wounded, Tamerlan Tsarnaev was taken into custody, and died at 1:35 a.m. at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. [95]

Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police Officer Richard H. Donohue Jr. [96] was critically wounded in the leg [97] in crossfire from other officers shooting at the fleeing vehicle, but survived. [98] Boston Police Department officer Dennis Simmonds was injured by a hand grenade and died on April 10, 2014. [65] Fifteen other officers were also injured. [85] A later report by Harvard Kennedy School's Program on Crisis Leadership concluded that lack of coordination among police agencies had put the public at excessive risk during the shootout. [99]

Only one firearm was recovered at the scene, Tsarnaev's Ruger P95, which was found to have a defaced serial number. [100] [101]

Identification and search for suspects Edit

Records on the Honda left at the scene identified the men [102] as two brothers whose family had migrated to the United States seeking political asylum around 2002: 26-year-old Tamerlan Tsarnaev and 19-year-old Dzhokhar "Jahar" Tsarnaev. [103] [104] The FBI released additional photos of the two during the Watertown incident. [105] Early on April 19, Watertown residents received automated calls asking them to stay indoors. [106] That same morning Governor Patrick asked residents of Watertown and adjacent cities and towns [107] [108] [109] to "shelter in place". [110] Somerville residents also received automated calls instructing them to shelter in place. [111]

A 20-block area of Watertown was cordoned off and residents were told not to leave their homes or answer the door, as officers scoured the area in tactical gear. Helicopters circled the area and SWAT teams in armored vehicles moved through in formation, with officers going door to door. [112] On the scene were the FBI, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Diplomatic Security Service, HSI-ICE, the National Guard, the Boston, Cambridge, Watertown Police departments, and the Massachusetts State Police. The show of force was the first major field test of the interagency task forces created in the wake of the September 11 attacks. [113]

The entire public transit network and most Boston taxi services [a] were suspended, as was Amtrak service to and from Boston. [74] [115] Logan International Airport remained open under heightened security. [115] Universities, schools, many businesses, and other facilities were closed as thousands of law enforcement personnel participated in the door-to-door manhunt in Watertown. Others followed up on other leads, including searching the house that the brothers shared in Cambridge, where seven improvised explosive devices were found. [116]

The brothers' father spoke from his home in Makhachkala, Dagestan, encouraging Dzhokhar to: "Give up. You have a bright future ahead of you. Come home to Russia." He continued, "If they killed him, then all hell would break loose." [117] On television, Dzhokhar's uncle from Montgomery Village, Maryland pleaded with him to turn himself in. [118]

On the evening of April 19, two hours after the shelter-in-place order had been lifted, David Henneberry, a Watertown resident outside the search area, noticed that the tarp was loose on his parked boat. [119] [120] Investigating, he saw a body lying inside the boat in a pool of blood. [121] He contacted the authorities, who surrounded the boat. A police helicopter verified movement through a thermal imaging device. [85] [122] The figure inside started poking at the tarp, prompting police to shoot at the boat. [123]

According to Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis and Watertown Police Chief Deveau, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was shooting at police from inside the boat, "exchanging fire for an hour". [124] A subsequent report indicated that the firing lasted for a shorter time. [125] Despite this, the suspect was found to have no weapon when he was captured. [126]

Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was arrested at 8:42 p.m. [127] [128] and taken to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, where he was listed in critical condition [129] with gunshot wounds to the head, neck, legs, and hand. [130] Initial reports that the neck wound represented a suicide attempt were contradicted by him being unarmed. [131] The situation was chaotic, according to a police source quoted by The Washington Post, and the firing of weapons occurred during "the fog of war". [125] A subsequent review by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts provided this more specific summary: "One officer fired his weapon without appropriate authority in response to perceived movement in the boat, and surrounding officers followed suit in a round of 'contagious fire', assuming they were being fired on by the suspect. Weapons continued to be fired for several seconds until on scene supervisors ordered a ceasefire and regained control of the scene. The unauthorized shots created another dangerous crossfire situation". [132]

These confusions were caused in part by a lack of clearly identified and coordinated law enforcement command of the thousands of officers from surrounding communities who self-deployed into the Watertown area during the events. [133]

Interrogation Edit

United States Senators Kelly Ayotte, Saxby Chambliss, Lindsey Graham, and John McCain, and Representative Peter T. King suggested that Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, a U.S. citizen, should be tried as an unlawful enemy combatant rather than as a criminal, potentially preventing him from obtaining legal counsel. [134] [135] Others said that doing so would be illegal, including prominent American legal scholar and lawyer Alan Dershowitz, and would jeopardize the prosecution. [136] [137] The government decided to try Dzhokhar in the federal criminal court system and not as an enemy combatant. [138]

Dzhokhar was questioned for 16 hours by investigators but stopped communicating with them on the night of April 22 after Judge Marianne Bowler read him a Miranda warning. [78] [139] Dzhokhar had not previously been given a Miranda warning, as federal law enforcement officials invoked the warning's public safety exception. [140] This raised doubts whether his statements during this investigation would be admissible as evidence and led to a debate surrounding Miranda rights. [141] [142] [143]

Charges and detention Edit

On April 22, 2013, formal criminal charges were brought against Tsarnaev in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts during a bedside hearing while he was hospitalized. He was charged with use of a weapon of mass destruction and with malicious destruction of property resulting in death. [2] Some of the charges carry potential sentences of life imprisonment or the death penalty. [144] Tsarnaev was judged to be awake, mentally competent, and lucid, and he responded to most questions by nodding. The judge asked him whether he was able to afford an attorney and he said no he was represented by the Federal Public Defender's office. [145] On April 26, Dzhohkar Tsarnaev was moved from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center to the Federal Medical Center at Fort Devens, about 40 miles (64 km) from Boston. FMC Devens is a federal prison medical facility at a former Army base [146] where he was held in solitary confinement at a segregated housing unit [147] with 23-hour-per-day lockdown. [148] [149]

On July 10, 2013, Tsarnaev pleaded not guilty to 30 charges in his first public court appearance, including a murder charge for MIT police officer Sean Collier. [150] He was back in court for a status hearing on September 23, [151] and his lawyers requested more time to prepare their defense. [152] On October 2, Tsarnaev's attorneys asked the court to lift the special administrative measures (SAMs) imposed by Attorney General Holder in August, saying that the measures had left Tsarnaev unduly isolated from communication with his family and lawyers, and that no evidence suggested that he posed a future threat. [153]

Trial and sentencing Edit

Jury selection began on January 5, 2015, and was completed on March 3, with a jury consisting of eight men and ten women (including six alternates). [154] The trial began on March 4 with Assistant U.S. Attorney William Weinreb describing the bombing and painting Dzhokhar as "a soldier in a holy war against Americans" whose motive was "reaching paradise". He called the brothers equal participants. [155]

Defense attorney Judy Clarke admitted that Dzhokhar Tsarnaev had placed the second bomb and was present at the murder of Sean Collier, the carjacking of Dun Meng, and the Watertown shootout, but she emphasized the influence that his older brother had on him, portraying him as a follower. [156] Between March 4 and 30, prosecutors called more than 90 witnesses, including bombing survivors who described losing limbs in the attack, and the government rested its case on March 30. [157] The defense rested as well on March 31, after calling four witnesses. [158]

Tsarnaev was found guilty on all 30 counts on April 8. [159] The sentencing phase of the trial began on April 21, [160] and a further verdict was reached on May 15 in which it was recommended that he be put to death. [161] Tsarnaev was sentenced to death on June 24, after apologizing to the victims. [162] In 2018 Tsarnaev's lawyers appealed on the grounds that a lower-court judge's refusal to move the case to another city not traumatized by the bombings deprived him of a fair trial. [163]

On July 30, 2020, Tsarnaev's death sentence was reversed by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, which found that the District Court did not properly screen jurors on how much they had heard of the case during jury selection. The First Circuit vacated the death sentence and three of the other thirty convictions against Tsarnaev, and ordered a new penalty phase jury trial with fresh jurors, leaving the decision of a new change of venue to the District Court. Tsarnaev's remaining convictions still carried multiple life sentences, assuring that he would remain in prison regardless of the results of the new trial. [3] The United States government appealed this ruling to the U.S. Supreme Court, which granted certiorari in the case United States v. Tsarnaev in March 2021, which is expected to be heard in the 2020–2021 term. [164]

Motives Edit

According to FBI interrogators, Dzhokhar and his brother were motivated by Islamic beliefs but "were not connected to any known terrorist groups", instead learning to build explosive weapons from an online magazine published by al-Qaeda affiliates in Yemen. [16] They further alleged that "Dzhokhar and his brother considered suicide attacks and striking the Boston Pops Fireworks Spectacular on the Fourth of July" [165] but ultimately decided to use remotely-activated pressure cooker bombs and other IEDs. Fox News reported that the brothers "chose the prestigious race as a 'target of opportunity' . [after] the building of the bombs came together more quickly than expected". [166] [167]

Dzhokhar said that he and his brother wanted to defend Islam from the U.S., accusing the U.S. of conducting the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan against Muslims. [138] [168] [169] A CBS report revealed that Dzhokhar had scrawled a note with a marker on the interior wall of the boat where he was hiding the note stated that the bombings were "retribution for U.S. military action in Afghanistan and Iraq", and called the Boston victims "collateral damage", "in the same way innocent victims have been collateral damage in U.S. wars around the world." [5] Photographs of the note were later used in the trial. [170] [171]

Some political science and public policy writers suggest that Islam may have played a secondary role in the attacks. [172] These writers theorize that the primary motives might have been sympathy towards the political aspirations in the Caucasus region and Tamerlan's inability to become fully integrated into American society. [172] According to the Los Angeles Times, a law enforcement official said that Dzhokhar "did not seem as bothered about America's role in the Muslim world" as his brother Tamerlan had been. [58] Dzhokhar identified Tamerlan as the "driving force" behind the bombing, and said that his brother had only recently recruited him to help. [138] [173]

Some journalists and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's defense attorney have suggested that the FBI may have recruited or attempted to recruit Tamerlan Tsarnaev as an informant. [174] [175] [176] [177]

Backgrounds Edit

Tamerlan Tsarnaev was born in 1986 in the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, North Caucasus. [178] Dzhokhar was born in 1993 in Kyrgyzstan, although some reports say that his family claims that he was born in Dagestan. [179] The family spent time in Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan, and in Makhachkala, Dagestan. [80] [180] They are half Chechen through their father Anzor, and half Avar [181] through their mother Zubeidat. They never lived in Chechnya, yet the brothers identified themselves as Chechen. [179] [182] [183] [184]

The Tsarnaev family immigrated to the United States in 2002 [15] [182] [185] [186] where they applied for political asylum, settling in Cambridge, Massachusetts. [104] Tamerlan Tsarnaev attended Bunker Hill Community College but dropped out to become a boxer. His goal was to gain a place on the U.S. Olympic boxing team, saying that, "unless his native Chechnya becomes independent", he would "rather compete for the United States than for Russia". [187] [188] He married U.S. citizen Katherine Russell on July 15, 2010, in the Masjid Al Quran Mosque. While initially quoted in a student magazine as saying, "I don't have a single American friend. I don't understand them," a later FBI interview report documents Tamerlan stating it was a misquote, and that most of his friends were American. [189] [190] He had a history of violence, including an arrest in July 2009 for assaulting his girlfriend. [191]

The brothers were Muslim Tamerlan's aunt stated that he had recently become a devout Muslim. [183] [184] Tamerlan became more devout and religious after 2009, [192] [193] and a YouTube channel in his name linked to Salafist [192] and Islamist [194] [195] videos. The FBI was informed by the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) in 2011 that he was a "follower of radical Islam." [194] In response, the FBI interviewed Tamerlan and his family and searched databases, but they did not find any evidence of "terrorism activity, domestic or foreign." [196] [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] During the 2012 trip to Dagestan, Tamerlan was reportedly a frequent visitor at a mosque on Kotrova Street in Makhachkala, [202] [203] [204] believed by the FSB to be linked with radical Islam. [203] Some believe that "they were motivated by their faith, apparently an anti-American, radical version of Islam" acquired in the U.S., [205] while others believe that the turn happened in Dagestan. [206]

At the time of the bombing, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was a student at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth with a major in marine biology. [207] He became a naturalized U.S. citizen on September 11, 2012. [208] Tamerlan's boxing coach reported to NBC that the young brother was greatly affected by Tamerlan and admired him. [209] [210]

Tamerlan was previously connected to the triple homicide in Waltham, Massachusetts, on the evening of September 11, 2011, but he was not a suspect at the time. [211] [212] Brendan Mess, Erik Weissman, and Raphael Teken were murdered in Mess's apartment. All had their throats slit from ear to ear with such great force that they were nearly decapitated. The local district attorney said that it appeared that the killer and the victims knew each other, and that the murders were not random. [213] Tamerlan Tsarnaev had previously described murder victim Brendan Mess as his "best friend." [214] After the bombing and subsequent revelations of Tsarnaev's personal life, the Waltham murders case was reexamined in April 2013 with Tsarnaev as a new suspect. [211] Both ABC and The New York Times have reported that there is strong evidence which implicates Tsarnaev in this triple homicide. [214] [215]

Some analysts claim that the Tsarnaev's mother Zubeidat Tsarnaeva is a radical extremist and supporter of jihad who influenced her sons' behavior. [216] [217] This prompted the Russian government to warn the U.S. government on two occasions about the family's behavior. Both Tamerlan and his mother were placed on a terrorism watch list about 18 months before the bombing took place. [218]

People detained and released Edit

On April 15, several people who were near the scene of the blast were taken into custody and questioned about the bombing, including a Saudi man whom police stopped as he was walking away from the explosion they detained him when some of his responses made them uncomfortable. [219] [220] [221] [222] Law enforcement searched his residence in a Boston suburb, and the man was found to have no connection to the attack. An unnamed U.S. official said, "he was just at the wrong place at the wrong time." [34] [223] [224]

On the night of April 18, two men who were riding in a taxi in the vicinity of the shootout were arrested and released shortly thereafter when police determined that they were not involved in the Marathon attacks. [225] Another man was arrested several blocks from the site of the shootout and was forced to strip naked by police who feared that he might have concealed explosives. He was released that evening after a brief investigation determined that he was an innocent bystander. [226] [227]

Ibragim Todashev Edit

On May 22, the FBI interrogated Ibragim Todashev in Orlando, Florida, who was a Chechen from Boston. During the interrogation, he was shot and killed by an FBI agent who claimed that Todashev attacked him. [228] The New York Times quoted an unnamed law enforcement official as saying that Todashev had confessed to a triple homicide, and had implicated Tsarnaev as well. [229] Todashev's father claimed his son is innocent and that federal investigators are biased against Chechens and made up their case against him. [230]

Dias Kadyrbayev, Azamat Tazhayakov, and Robel Phillipos Edit

Personal backgrounds Edit

Robel Phillipos (19) was a U.S. citizen of Ethiopian descent living in Cambridge who was arrested and faced with charges of knowingly making false statements to police. [231] [232] He graduated from high school in 2011 with Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. [233] Dias Kadyrbayev (19) and Azamat Tazhayakov (20) were natives of Kazakhstan living in the U.S. [234] [235] They were Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's roommates in an off-campus housing complex in New Bedford, Massachusetts, at which Tsarnaev had sometimes stayed. [231]

Phillipos, Kadyrbayev, Tazhayakov, and Tsarnaev entered the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth in the fall of 2011 and knew each other well. After seeing photos of Tsarnaev on television, the three men traveled to his dorm room where Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov retrieved a backpack and laptop belonging to Tsarnaev, while Phillipos acted as lookout. The backpack was discarded, but police recovered it and its contents in a nearby New Bedford landfill on April 26. During interviews, the men initially denied visiting the dorm room but later admitted their actions. [231] [236]

Arrests and legal proceedings Edit

Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov were arrested by police at the off-campus housing complex during the night of April 18–19. An unidentified girlfriend of one of the men was also arrested, [234] [235] but all three were soon released. [231]

Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov were re-arrested in New Bedford on April 20 and held on immigration-related violations. They appeared before a federal immigration judge on May 1 and were charged with overstaying their student visas. [237] [238] [239] That same day, Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov were charged criminally with:

willfully conspir(ing) with each other to commit an offense against the United States… by knowingly destroying, concealing, and covering up objects belonging to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, namely, a backpack containing fireworks and a laptop computer, with the intent to impede, obstruct, and influence the criminal investigation of the Marathon bombing. [240] [241]

Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov were indicted by a federal grand jury on August 8, 2013, on charges of conspiracy to obstruct justice for helping Dzhokhar Tsarnaev dispose of a laptop computer, fireworks, and a backpack after the bombing. Each faced up to 25 years in prison and deportation if convicted. [242] Tazhayakov was convicted of obstruction of justice and conspiracy on July 21, 2014. [243]

Kadyrbayev pleaded guilty to obstruction charges on August 22, 2014, [244] but sentencing was delayed pending the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Yates v. United States. [245] Kadyrbayev was sentenced to six years in prison in June 2015. [246] He was deported back to Kazakhstan in October 2018. [247]

Tazhayakov pleaded not guilty and went to trial, arguing that "Kadyrbayev was the mastermind behind destroying the evidence and that Tazhayakov only 'attempted obstruction.'" Jurors returned a guilty verdict against him, however, and he was sentenced to 42 months in prison in June 2015, which equated to three and a half years. U.S. District Judge Douglas Woodlock gave a lighter sentence to Tazahayakov than to Kadyrbayev, who was viewed as more culpable. [246] Tazhayakov was released in May 2016 and subsequently deported. [248]

Phillipos was arrested and faced charges of knowingly making false statements to police. [231] [232] He was released on $100,000 bail and placed under house confinement with an ankle monitor. [233] He was convicted on October 28, 2014, on two charges of lying about being in Tsarnaev's dorm room. He later acknowledged that he had been in the room while two friends removed a backpack containing potential evidence relating to the bombing. [249]

Phillipos faced a maximum sentence of eight years' imprisonment on each count. [250] In June 2015, U.S. District Judge Douglas P. Woodlock sentenced him to three years in prison. [251] Phillipos filed an appeal, but his sentence was upheld in court on February 28, 2017. [252]

Phillipos was released from prison in Philadelphia on February 26, 2018, and must serve a three year probation upon his release. [253]

Khairullozhon Matanov Edit

A federal indictment was unsealed against Khairullozhon Matanov on May 30, 2014, charging him with "one count of destroying, altering, and falsifying records, documents, and tangible objects in a federal investigation, specifically information on his computer, and three counts of making materially false, fictitious, and fraudulent statements in a federal terrorism investigation." Matanov bought dinner for the two Tsarnaev brothers 40 minutes after the bombing. After the Tsarnaev brothers' photos were released to the public, Matanov viewed the photos on the CNN and FBI websites before attempting to reach Dzhokhar, and then tried to give away his cell phone and delete hundreds of documents from his computer. Prosecutors said that Matanov attempted to mislead investigators about the nature of his relationship with the brothers and to conceal that he shared their philosophy of violence. [254] [255]

Matanov was originally from Kyrgyzstan. He came to the U.S. in 2010 on a student visa, and later claimed asylum. He attended Quincy College for two years before dropping out to become a taxicab driver. He was living in Quincy, Massachusetts, at the time of his arrest, and was a friend of Tamerlan Tsarnaev. [255]

In March 2015, Matanov pleaded guilty to all four counts. [255] [256] In June 2015, he was sentenced to 30 months in prison. [255]

Deaths Edit

Three people were killed as a direct result of the bombings. Krystle Marie Campbell, a 29-year-old restaurant manager from Medford, Massachusetts, was killed by the first bomb. [257] Lü Lingzi, (Chinese: 吕令子 ) [258] [259] a 23-year-old Chinese national and Boston University statistics graduate student from Shenyang, Liaoning, [260] [261] [262] [263] and 8-year old boy Martin William Richard from the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, were both killed by the second bomb. [264] [265]

Sean A. Collier, 27 years old, was shot and killed by the bombers as he sat in his patrol car on April 18, at about 10:48 p.m. He was an MIT police officer, and had been with the Somerville Auxiliary Police Department from 2006 to 2009. [266] He died from multiple gunshot wounds. [267]

Boston Police Department officer Dennis Simmonds died on April 10, 2014, from injuries that he received during the Watertown shootout a year before. [65]

Injuries Edit

According to the Boston Public Health Commission, 264 civilians were treated at 27 local hospitals. [6] [268] Eleven days later, 29 remained hospitalized, one in critical condition. [269] Many victims had lower leg injuries and shrapnel wounds, [270] which indicated that the devices were low to the ground. [271] At least 16 civilians lost limbs, at the scene or by surgical amputation, and three lost more than one limb. [272] [273] [274] [275]

Doctors described removing "ball-bearing type" metallic beads a little larger than BBs and small carpenter-type nails about 0.5 to 1 inch (1 to 3 cm) long. [276] Similar objects were found at the scene. [50] The New York Times cited doctors as saying that the bombs mainly injured legs, ankles, and feet because they were low to the ground, instead of fatally injuring abdomens, chests, shoulders, and heads. [277] Some victims had perforated eardrums. [271]

MBTA police officer Richard H. Donohue Jr. (33) was critically wounded during a firefight with the bombers just after midnight on April 19. [96] He lost almost all of his blood, and his heart stopped for 45 minutes, during which time he was kept alive by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. [ citation needed ] The Boston Globe reported that Donohue may have been accidentally shot by a fellow officer. [97]

Marc Fucarile lost his right leg and received severe burns and shrapnel wounds. He was the last victim released from hospital care on July 24, 2013. [278]

Law enforcement, local and national politicians, and various heads of state reacted quickly to the bombing, generally condemning the act and expressing sympathies for the victims. [51] [279] Spontaneous, improvised temporary memorials appeared at the sites of the deaths in Boston and Cambridge. Over the next few years, permanent memorials were constructed and dedicated at these locations.

Aid to victims Edit

The One Fund Boston was established by Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick and Boston mayor Thomas Menino to make monetary distributions to bombing victims. [280] [281] The Boston Strong concert at the TD Garden in Boston on May 30, 2013, benefitted the One Fund, which ultimately received more than $69.8 million in donations. [282] A week after the bombing, crowd funding websites [283] received more than 23,000 pledges promising more than $2 million for the victims, their families, and others affected by the bombing. [284] The Israel Trauma Coalition for Response and Preparedness sent six psychologists and specialists from Israel to help Boston emergency responders, government administrators, and community people develop post-terrorist attack recovery strategies. [285]

Local reactions Edit

Numerous sporting events, concerts, and other public entertainment were postponed or cancelled in the days following the bombing. [287] [288] [289] [290] The MBTA public transit system was under heavy National Guard and police presence and it was shut down a second time April 19 during the manhunt. [74] [115] [291]

In the days after the bombing, makeshift memorials began to spring up along the cordoned-off area surrounding Boylston Street. The largest was located on Arlington Street, the easternmost edge of the barricades, starting with flowers, tokens, and T-shirts. [292] [293] [294] [295] [296] In June, the Makeshift Memorial located in Copley Square was taken down and the memorial objects located there were moved to the archives in West Roxbury for cleaning, fumigation, and archiving. [297]

Five years after the bombing, The Boston Globe reported all of the items from the memorials were being housed in a climate controlled environment, free of charge, by the storage company, Iron Mountain in Northborough, Massachusetts. Some of the items are also being stored in Boston's city archives in West Roxbury. [298]

Boston University established a scholarship in honor of Lü Lingzi, a student who died in the bombing. [299] University of Massachusetts Boston did the same in honor of alumna and bombing victim Krystle Campell. [300]

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology established a scholarship, and erected a large abstract environmental sculpture outdoors called the Sean Collier Memorial, both in memory of slain MIT Police officer Sean Collier. The open-arched monolithic stone enclosure was proposed, designed, funded, fabricated, and installed on campus in less than two years after the bombing, and formally unveiled on April 29, 2015. [301] [302]

One study conducted by the Institute for Public Service at Suffolk University in Boston, Massachusetts, recorded the mental health and emotional response of various survivors, for three years following the bombing. In doing so, it reviewed the kinds of aid that were available in local hospitals and offered advice on how a person or community may be healed. [303] This study also mentions that after recognizing the downgraded media coverage of people in the city being killed or injured on a daily basis, the city of Boston "applied for and received a grant from The Rockefeller Foundation to be part of their 100 resilient cities network and to develop a cross cutting resilience strategy". [ citation needed ]

However, there was rising anti-Muslim sentiment online and locally in the weeks following the bombing, causing distress in the local Muslim community and making some afraid to leave their homes. [304]

Three stone pillars lit by abstract sculptural bronze lighting columns memorializing three victims were installed at the two separate bombing sites on August 19, 2019. [286] Two bronze sidewalk bricks were installed to memorialize police officers killed in the aftermath, and cherry trees were planted nearby to bloom each April. [286]

National reactions Edit

President Barack Obama addressed the nation after the attack. [305] He said that the perpetrators were still unknown, but that the government would "get to the bottom of this" and that those responsible "will feel the full weight of justice". [306] He ordered flags to half-staff until April 20 on all federal buildings as "a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on April 15, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts." [307]

Moments of silence were held at various events across the country, including at the openings of the New York Stock Exchange, NASDAQ, and NYMEX on the day after the bombing. [308] Numerous special events were held, including marathons and other runs. [309] [310] [311] [312]

International reactions Edit

The bombing was denounced and condolences were offered by many international leaders as well as leading figures from international sport. Security measures were increased worldwide in the wake of the attack. [313] [314] [315] [316]

In China, users posted condolence messages on Weibo in response to the death of Lü Lingzi. [317] [318] Chris Buckley of The New York Times said "Ms. Lu's death gave a melancholy face to the attraction that America and its colleges exert over many young Chinese." [261] Laurie Burkitt of The Wall Street Journal said "Ms. Lu's death resonates with many in China" due to the one-child policy. [319]

Organizers of the London Marathon, which was held six days after the Boston bombing, reviewed security arrangements for their event. Hundreds of extra police officers were drafted in to provide a greater presence on the streets, and a record 700,000 spectators lined the streets. Runners in London observed a 30-second silence in respect for the victims of Boston shortly before the race began, and many runners wore black ribbons on their vests. Organizers also pledged to donate US$3 to a fund for Boston Marathon victims for every person who finished the race. [320] [321] [322]

Organizers of the 2013 Vancouver Sun Run, which was held on April 21, 2013, donated $10 from every late entry for the race to help victims of the bombing at the Boston Marathon. Jamie Pitblado, vice-president of promotions for The Vancouver Sun and The Province, said the money would go to One Fund Boston, an official charity that collected donations for the victims and their families. Sun Run organizers raised anywhere from $25,000 to $40,000. There were over 48,000 participants, many dressed in blue and yellow (Boston colors) with others wearing Boston Red Sox caps. [323]

Petr Gandalovic, ambassador of the Czech Republic, released a statement after noticing much confusion on Facebook and Twitter between his nation and the Chechen Republic. "The Czech Republic and Chechnya are two very different entities – the Czech Republic is a Central European country Chechnya is a part of the Russian Federation." [324]

Security was also stepped up in Singapore in response to online threats made on attacking several locations in the city-state and the Singapore Marathon in December. Two suspects were investigated and one was eventually arrested for making false bomb threats. [325]

Russian reaction Edit

The Russian government said that special attention would be paid to security at upcoming international sports events in Russia, including the 2014 Winter Olympics. [326] According to the Russian embassy in the U.S., President Vladimir Putin condemned the bombing as a "barbaric crime" and "stressed that the Russian Federation will be ready, if necessary, to assist in the U.S. authorities' investigation." [327] He urged closer cooperation of security services with Western partners [328] but other Russian authorities and mass media blamed the U.S. authorities for negligence as they warned the U.S. of the Tsarnaevs. [329] Moreover Russian authorities and mass media since the spring of 2014 blame the United States for politically motivated false information about the lack of response from Russian authorities after subsequent U.S. requests. [ citation needed ] As proof a letter from the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) was shown to the members of an official U.S. Congressional delegation to Moscow during their visit. This letter with information about Tsarnaev (including his biography details, connections and phone number) had been sent from the FSB to the FBI and CIA during March 2011. [330]

Republican U.S. Senators Saxby Chambliss and Richard Burr reported that Russian authorities had separately asked both the FBI (at least twice: during March and November 2011) and the CIA (September 2011) to look carefully into Tamerlan Tsarnaev and provide more information about him back to Russia. [331] Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) secretly recorded phone conversations between Tamerlan Tsarnaev and his mother (they vaguely and indirectly discussed jihad) and sent these to the FBI as evidence of possible extremist links within the family. [ citation needed ] However, while Russia offered US intelligence services warnings that Tsarnaev planned to link up with extremist groups abroad, an FBI investigation yielded no evidence to support those claims at the time. In addition, subsequent U.S. requests for additional information about Tsarnaev went unanswered by the Russians. [332]

Chechen reactions Edit

On April 19, 2013, the press-secretary of the head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov, issued a statement that, inter alia, read: "The Boston bombing suspects have nothing to do with Chechnya". [333] [334] On the same day, Kadyrov was reported by The Guardian to have written on Instagram: [335]

Any attempt to make a link between Chechnya and the Tsarnaevs, if they are guilty, is in vain. They grew up in the U.S., their views and beliefs were formed there. The roots of evil must be searched for in America. The whole world must battle with terrorism. We know this better than anyone. We wish recover [sic] to all the victims and share Americans' feeling of sorrow.

Akhmed Zakayev, head of the secular wing of the Chechen separatist movement, now in exile in London, condemned the bombing as "terrorist" and expressed condolences to the families of the victims. Zakayev denied that the bombers were in any way representative of the Chechen people, saying that "the Chechen people never had and can not have any hostile feelings toward the United States and its citizens." [336]

The Mujahideen of the Caucasus Emirate Province of Dagestan, the Caucasian Islamist organization in both Chechnya and Dagestan, denied any link to the bombing or the Tsarnaev brothers and stated that it was at war with Russia, not the United States. It also said that it had sworn off violence against civilians since 2012. [337] [338] [339]

Criticism of the "shelter-in-place" directive and house-to-house searches Edit

During the manhunt for the perpetrators of the bombing, Governor Deval Patrick said "we are asking people to shelter in place." The request was highly effective most people stayed home, causing Boston, Watertown, and Cambridge to come to a virtual standstill. According to Time magazine, "media described residents complying with a 'lockdown order,' but in reality the governor's security measure was a request." Scott Silliman, emeritus director of the Center on Law, Ethics and National Security at Duke Law School, said that the shelter-in-place request was voluntary. [340]

The shelter-in-place directive was criticized by some commentators. Michael Cohen of The Observer said that Americans have little experience with daily terrorism compared to some countries and "are more primed to … assume the absolute worst." [341] Cohen wrote that it was not the first time dangerous murderers have been on the loose in a large American city (citing Christopher Dorner in 2013 and the Beltway sniper attacks in 2002), but noted that "lockdown" measures were not used in those cases. [341] Former congressman and presidential candidate Ron Paul, criticized what he described as a "military-style takeover of parts of Boston" during the investigation and wrote that "this unprecedented move should frighten us as much or more than the attack itself." [342]

Haaretz ' s Chemi Salev wrote that "in terms of cost-benefit analysis, from the evil terrorist's point of view, the Boylston Street bombings and their aftermath can only be viewed as a resounding triumph" since the "relatively amateurish" terrorists managed to intimidate a vast number of people and got a maximum amount of publicity. [343] Responding to Salev in The New York Times, Ross Douthat commented that the massive manhunt operation might deter other amateur terrorists, but not hard-core terrorists such as Mohammed Atta. [344] Douthat argued that out-of-the-ordinary measures can only be used when terrorism itself is out-of-the-ordinary: if attacks started to occur more often, people would not be as willing to comply with shelter-in-place commands, yet once a terrorist has been hunted with such an operation, it is hard to justify why such measures should not be taken the next time. [344]

The National Lawyers Guild and some news outlets questioned the constitutionality of the door-to-door searches conducted by law enforcement officers looking for Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. [345] [346] [347]

One Boston Day Edit

On the second anniversary of the Boston Marathon Bombings, Mayor Marty Walsh established April 15, the day of the bombings, as an official and permanent holiday called "One Boston Day", dedicated to conducting random acts of kindness and helping others out. [348] Over the past eight years, some examples of acts of kindness being done have been donating blood to the American Red Cross, donating food to the Greater Boston Food Bank, opening free admission in places like the Museum of Science and Museum of Fine Arts, donating shoes to homeless shelters, and donating to military and veteran charities. [349] [350]

Conspiracy theories Edit

A number of conspiracy theories arose in the immediate wake of the attacks and after more information about the Tsarnaev brothers came to light. [351] This can be common in the aftermath of acts of domestic terrorism, especially the September 11th attacks. [352] In the days following the attacks, some conspiracy theories arose on the internet claiming they were false flag attacks committed by the United States government. [353] As more information about the backgrounds of the Tsarnaev Brothers came to light, further conspiracy theories were disseminated. One claim, made by Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's defense attorney as well as some journalists, was that the FBI had tried to recruit Tamerlan Tsarnaev as an FBI informant in 2011. [179] [180] [181] [182] The FBI denied this claim in a press release, stating that "the Tsarnaev brothers were never sources for the FBI nor did the FBI attempt to recruit them as sources." [354] The FBI is not required to release information on informants, and classified information on sources of intelligence constitutes an exception to the 25-year declassification window established by Executive Order 13526. [355]

In 2011, a friend of Tamerlan Tsarnaev was murdered in Waltham, Massachusetts, along with two others. [356] [357] [358] After the 2013 attacks, the investigation was reopened with Tamerlan Tsarnaev as a new suspect. [359] The failure of the 2011 investigation to identify Tamerlan Tsarnaev as a major suspect led to claims among conspiracy theorists that the investigation of the 2011 Waltham triple murder had been suppressed by the FBI in order to maintain Tsarnaev's informant status. Theorists also cite the fact that the FBI has been criticized for an alleged practice under former director James Comey of encouraging confidential informants to attempt terrorist attacks. [360] [361] This alleged practice, combined with disputed claims of connections between the Tsarnaev brothers and intelligence services, [179] [362] have given rise to a conspiracy theory that the United States government had foreknowledge of the Tsarnaev brothers' plans to commit a terrorist attack, or that the attack was made at the direction of intelligence services. [351] The Tsarnaev brother's uncle, Said-Hussein Tsarnaev and other members of the Tsarnaev family have repeated this theory, as well as claiming neither brother actually committed the attacks. [363] This claim also formed an element of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's legal defense. [364] No evidence or further claims supporting this theory have been confirmed by any US government agencies. [351]

On the afternoon of the bombing, the New York Post reported that a suspect, a Saudi Arabian male, was under guard and being questioned at a Boston hospital. [365] That evening, Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis said that there had not been an arrest. [366] The Post did not retract its story about the suspect, leading to widespread reports by CBS News, CNN, and other media that a Middle Eastern suspect was in custody. [367] The day after the bombing, a majority of outlets were reporting that the Saudi was a witness, not a suspect. [368]

The New York Post on its April 18 front page showed two men, and said they were being sought by the authorities. The two men in question, a 17-year-old boy and his track coach, were not the ones being sought as suspects. The boy, from Revere, Massachusetts, turned himself over to the police immediately and was cleared after a 20-minute interview in which they advised him to deactivate his Facebook account. [369] [370] New York Post editor Col Allan stated, "We stand by our story. The image was emailed to law enforcement agencies yesterday afternoon seeking information about these men, as our story reported. We did not identify them as suspects." The two were implied to be possible suspects via crowdsourcing on the websites Reddit [370] and 4chan. [371]

Several other people were mistakenly identified as suspects. [372] Two of those wrongly identified as suspects on Reddit were the 17-year-old track star noted above and Sunil Tripathi, a Brown University student missing since March. [373] [374] Tripathi was found dead on April 23 in the Providence River. [375]

On April 17, the FBI released the following statement:

Contrary to widespread reporting, no arrest has been made in connection with the Boston Marathon attack. Over the past day and a half, there have been a number of press reports based on information from unofficial sources that has been inaccurate. Since these stories often have unintended consequences, we ask the media, particularly at this early stage of the investigation, to exercise caution and attempt to verify information through appropriate official channels before reporting. [376] [377]

The decision to release the photos of the Tsarnaev brothers was made in part to limit damage done to those misidentified on the Internet and by the media, and to address concerns over maintaining control of the manhunt. [71]

A film about the bombing and the subsequent manhunt, Patriots Day, was released in December 2016. Another film, Stronger, which chronicles the experience of survivor Jeff Bauman, was released in September 2017.

    , an attempted bombing in New York City using a pressure cooker bomb and other explosive devices , a triple homicide to which Tamerlan Tsarnaev has been connected , the bombing of a public bus in Israel using a pressure cooker bomb , a 1996 terrorist attack which also targeted a public event
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Congressional hearings

  • Lessons Learned from the Boston Marathon Bombings: Preparing for and Responding to the Attack . Hearing Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States Senate. One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session. July 10, 2013. S. Hrg. 113–226.
  • The Boston Marathon Bombings, One Year On: A Look Back to Look Forward . Hearing Before the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session. April 9, 2014. Serial No. 113–64.
  • Lessons Learned from the Boston Marathon Bombings: Improving Intelligence and Information Sharing . Hearing Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States Senate. One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session. April 30, 2014. S. Hrg. 113–444.

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Boston Marathon Runner: I Photographed Dzhokhar Tsarnaev After the Bombings

Days before a Watertown citizen helped lead police to the second suspect in the Boston Marathon bombing, another ordinary civilian provided a photo that helped identify the most wanted man in America.

In the chaos immediately after the Boston Marathon blasts, David Green took a picture with his smartphone before helping those who had been injured in the second blast.

It wasn’t until three days later, when officials released video of the two suspects, that Green realized that he had a clear photo of suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev walking away from the scene.

Green, the CEO of a sportswear company who ran the marathon, immediately understood the importance of taking the picture. “I was in New York during 9/11,” he tells PEOPLE. “You just have to document something, [so] I pulled my phone out and took one picture.”

“Then I ran into the crowd to help whoever was there. I got back to the hotel, called the FBI and said I had the photo, then I posted it on Facebook.”

Three days later, he saw the first videos of the suspects, and realized what he had done. 𠇊 buddy of mine said, ‘You need to check your photo.’ And sure enough I had a high res photo that showed [the suspect]. You could see the bag that carried the bomb was gone.” The photo, he adds, �ught a pretty interesting moment in history – this guy walking away.”

“I called the FBI [again],” Green says. “Within 30 minutes, I spoke to half a dozen agents. I think they knew we had … the best photo of suspect number two. So they told me I could circulate that photo. I re-posted it on Facebook, said ‘This is a photo of suspect two, please get this out.’ And between 7 and 11 p.m. on Thursday night, it went viral.”

Now home in Jacksonville Beach, Florida, Green is thankful that he thought to take the photo. “It certainly can’t make up for the tragedy,” he says. 𠇋ut it felt really good to be able to help.”


Tourniquet use at the Boston Marathon bombing: Lost in translation

Background: The Boston Marathon bombing was the first major, modern US terrorist event with multiple, severe lower extremity injuries. First responders, including trained professionals and civilian bystanders, rushed to aid the injured. The purpose of this review was to determine how severely bleeding extremity injuries were treated in the prehospital setting in the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombing.

Methods: A database was created and populated by all the Boston Level I trauma centers following the Boston Marathon bombing. Data regarding specific injuries, extremities affected, demographics, prehospital interventions (including tourniquet types), and outcomes were extracted.

Results: Of 243 injured, 152 patients presented to the emergency department within 24 hours. Of these 152 patients, there were 66 (63.6% female) experiencing at least one extremity injury, with age ranging from younger than 15 years to 71 years, and with a median Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 10 (range, 1-38). Of the 66 injured patients, 4 had upper limbs affected, 56 had injuries on the lower limbs only, and 6 had combined upper and lower limbs affected. The extremity Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores had a median of 3 (range, 1-4). There were 17 lower extremity traumatic amputations in 15 patients. In addition, there were 10 patients with 12 lower extremities experiencing major vascular injuries. Of 66 injured patients, 29 patients had recognized extremity exsanguination at the scene. In total, 27 tourniquets were applied: 16 of 17 traumatic amputations, 5 of 12 lower extremities with major vascular injuries, and 6 additional limbs with major soft tissue injury. All tourniquets were improvised, and no commercial, purpose-designed tourniquets were identified. Among all 243 patients, mortality was 0%.

Conclusion: After the Boston Marathon bombings, extremity exsanguination at the point of injury was either left untreated or treated with an improvised tourniquet in the prehospital environment. An effective, prehospital extremity hemorrhage control posture should be translated to all civilian first responders in the United States and should mirror the military's posture toward extremity bleeding control. The prehospital response to extremity exsanguination after the Boston Marathon bombing demonstrates that our current practice is an approach, lost in translation, from the battlefield to the homeland.


Contents

Family background Edit

The Tsarnaev family was forcibly moved from Chechnya by the Soviet Union to the Soviet republic of Kyrgyzstan in the years following World War II. [26] Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's father, Anzor Tsarnaev, is a Chechen, and his mother, Zubeidat Tsarnaeva, is an Avar. [27] [28] [29] The couple had two sons, Tamerlan, born in the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic [30] in 1986, and Dzhokhar, born in Kyrgyzstan in 1993. [31] The parents also have two daughters, Bella and Aliana. [32] Anzor is a Muslim who shuns extremism [33] and raised his children as Muslims. [34] [35] [36] According to some, other Chechen Americans in the area apparently did not consider the American branch of the family to be "fully" Chechen because they had never lived in Chechnya. [31]

As children, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar lived in Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan. In 2001, the family moved to Makhachkala, Dagestan, in the Russian Federation. [37] [4] [38] In April 2002, the Tsarnaev parents and Dzhokhar went to the United States on a 90-day tourist visa. [39] [40] [41] Anzor Tsarnaev applied for asylum, citing fears of deadly persecution due to his ties to Chechnya. [42]

Tamerlan was left in the care of his uncle Ruslan in Kyrgyzstan [26] and arrived in the U.S. about two years later. [43] In the U.S. the parents received asylum and then filed for their four children, who received "derivative asylum status". [44] They settled on Norfolk Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Tamerlan lived there until his death. [45]

The family "was in constant transition" for the next decade. [26] Anzor Tsarnaev and Zubeidat Tsarnaeva both received welfare benefits. [46] The father worked as a backyard mechanic and the mother worked as a cosmetologist [47] until she lost her job for refusing to work in a business that served men. In March 2007, the family was granted legal permanent residence. [43]

Early life Edit

Tsarnaev was born in Kyrgyzstan on July 22, 1993. As a child, he emigrated with his family to Russia and then, when he was eight years old, to the United States under political asylum. The family settled in Cambridge and became U.S. permanent residents in March 2007. Dzhokhar became a U.S. citizen on September 11, 2012, while in college. [4] [41] [48] His mother, Zubeidat, also became a U.S. citizen, but it is not clear if his father, Anzor, ever did. Tamerlan, his brother, was unable to naturalize expeditiously due to an investigation against him, which held up the citizenship process. [49] Dzhokhar attended Cambridgeport Elementary School and Cambridge Community Charter School's middle school program. [50] At Cambridge Rindge and Latin School, a public high school, he was an avid wrestler and a Greater Boston League winter all-star. [4] [45] He sometimes worked as a lifeguard at Harvard University. [51]

In 2011, he contacted a professor at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth who taught a class about Chechen history, expressing his interest in the topic. [52] He graduated from high school in 2011 [4] and the city of Cambridge awarded him a $2,500 scholarship that year. [45] His brother's boxing coach, who had not seen them in a few years at the time of the bombings, said that "the young brother was like a puppy dog, following his older brother". [53] [54]

Life as a university student Edit

Tsarnaev enrolled at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth in September 2011. He started with a marine biology major with the intent on becoming a dentist but later changed to nursing. [4] [55]

Tsarnaev was described as "normal" and popular among fellow students. His friends said he sometimes smoked marijuana, [56] liked hip hop, and did not talk to them about politics. [57] Many friends and other acquaintances found it inconceivable that he could be one of the two bombers at first, [52] calling it "completely out of his character". [58] He was not perceived as foreign, spoke English without a [foreign] accent, [57] was sociable, and was described by peers as "[not] 'them'. He was 'us'. He was Cambridge." [59]

On the Russian-language social-networking site VK, Tsarnaev described his "world view" as "Islam" and his personal priorities as "career and money". [45] He posted links to Islamic websites, links to videos of fighters in the Syrian civil war, and links to pages advocating independence for Chechnya. [60] Dzhokhar was also active on Twitter. According to The Economist, he seemed "to have been much more concerned with sport and cheeseburgers than with religion, at least judging by his Twitter feed" [61] however, according to The Boston Globe, on the day of the 2012 Boston Marathon, a year before the bombings, a post on Tsarnaev's Twitter feed mentioned a Quran verse often used by radical Muslim clerics and propagandists. [62]

In 2012, Arlington Police ran a warrant check on Tsarnaev and checked his green Honda when they were investigating a report of underage drinking at a party in Arlington Heights. [63]

At the time of the bombing, Tsarnaev was a sophomore living in the UMass Dartmouth's Pine Dale Hall dorm. [62] [64] He was struggling academically, having a 1.09 GPA and receiving seven failing grades over three semesters, including Fs in Principles of Modern Chemistry, Introduction to American Politics, and Chemistry and the Environment [45] and had an unpaid bill of $20,000 to the university. [65] He was known to be selling marijuana to make money. [31]

A triple homicide was committed in Waltham, Massachusetts on the evening of September 11, 2011. After the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the case was re-examined and authorities said that the Tsarnaev brothers might have been responsible for the murders, that forensic evidence connected them to the scene of the killings and that their cell phone records placed them in the area at the time of the killings. [66] A crucial event happened in May 2013 when Ibragim Todashev, a 27-year-old Chechen native and former mixed martial arts fighter who knew Tamerlan Tsarnaev, was shot and killed in Orlando, Florida, by law enforcement officers who had been interviewing him about the bombings and the Waltham murders. The FBI alleged that just before he was killed, Todashev made statements implicating both himself and Tamerlan Tsarnaev in the Waltham murders—saying that the initial crime was a drug-related robbery and that the murders were committed to prevent being identified by the victims. [67]

Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was convicted of participating, along with his brother Tamerlan Tsarnaev, in the 2013 Boston Bombing. He reportedly "told the FBI that he and his brother were angry about the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and the killing of Muslims there." [68]

That day, Dzhokhar was captured on CCTV near the finish line pushing his way through spectators towards the front carrying a duffel bag which contained one of two pressure cooker bombs that would detonate. Tsarnaev appeared to place the bag down without causing any suspicion amongst spectators and then appeared to watch some marathon runners cross the finish line before hurrying away moments before the bomb exploded, causing mass panic among spectators and marathon runners. Shortly after the second bomb exploded, CCTV captured both Tsarnaev brothers running among the crowd away from the scene.

Tsarnaev continued to tweet after the bombings, and sent a tweet telling the people of Boston to "stay safe". [57] [69] He returned to his university after the April 15 bombing and remained there until April 18, when the FBI released pictures of him and Tamerlan at the marathon. During that time, he used the college gym and slept in his dorm his friends said that he partied with them after the attacks and looked "relaxed". [70] [71]

Tsarnaev and his brother murdered MIT police officer Sean Collier on April 18, 2013 at the MIT campus in an attempt to steal his gun, before traveling to the Boston neighborhood of Allston. There, the brothers carjacked an SUV and robbed the owner. [72] However, the owner of the car said he managed to escape when the Tsarnaevs became momentarily distracted in the process of refueling the car at a cash-only gas station. Dun Meng, [73] who originally did not give his name to the media but said he goes by the name "Danny", said he fled to another nearby gas station and contacted the police. Police were then able to track the location of the car through the man's cellphone and the SUV's anti-theft tracking device. [74]

When police found the stolen SUV and a Honda being driven by the brothers in the early hours of April 19, the suspects engaged in a shootout with police in Watertown. During the gunfight, in which bombs were thrown at responding officers, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was wounded while Tamerlan was shot a number of times before being apprehended. Police say that Dzhokhar escaped by driving the stolen SUV toward the officers who were arresting his brother. Although the officers managed to avoid being hit, Tsarnaev drove over Tamerlan, dragging him under the SUV about 30 feet (9 m) in the process (Tamerlan would later die at a nearby hospital). Tsarnaev reportedly sped off, but abandoned the car about 1 ⁄ 2 mile (800 m) away and then fled on foot. [75] An unprecedented manhunt ensued involving thousands of police officers from several nearby towns as well as state police, FBI, and SWAT teams, who searched numerous homes and property inside a 10-block perimeter. Warrants were not issued, but residents reported they were told they must allow the searches to go forward. Many reported being instructed to leave their homes as well. Images of squad cars and large black armored vehicles crowding the side streets, and videos of residents being led out of their homes at gunpoint soon flooded social media. The Boston metro area was effectively shut down all day on April 19. [76]

After Tsarnaev's name was published in connection with the bombings, his uncle Ruslan Tsarni, who lives in Montgomery Village, Maryland, pleaded with Tsarnaev through television to turn himself in "and ask for forgiveness", and said that he had shamed the family and the Chechen ethnicity. [77]

Tsarnaev, who had been shot and was bleeding badly from wounds to his left ear, neck and thigh, [84] was taken into federal custody after the standoff. Initial reports that the neck wound was from a self-inflicted gunshot due to a possible suicide attempt were later contradicted by the revelation that he was unarmed at the time of capture and a description of the neck wound by SWAT team members that identified it as a slicing injury, possibly caused by shrapnel from an explosion. [85]

In an image broadcast on the night of his arrest, he was shown stepping out of the boat in which he had been hiding. [86] Other sources described him "lying on his stomach, straddling the side of the boat (…) His left arm and left leg hung over the boat's side. He appeared to struggle for consciousness." Then he was "hauled down to the grassy ground" by SWAT officer Jeff Campbell and handcuffed by SWAT officer Saro Thompson. [75] In a photograph he can be seen lying on the ground on his back with his hands cuffed behind him, being helped by medical staff. [87]

He was taken to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, where he was treated for severe injuries in the intensive-care unit. He was in serious but stable condition (updated to "fair" on April 23), and unable to speak because of the wound to his throat. [18] [88] According to one of the nurses, he had cried for two days straight after waking up. [31] He responded to authorities in writing and by nodding his head, [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] although he did manage to say the word "no" when asked if he could afford a lawyer. Court documents released in August 2013, show that Tsarnaev had a skull fracture and gunshot wounds prior to being taken into custody. [94] According to a doctor that treated him, Tsarnaev had a skull-base fracture, with injuries to the middle ear, the skull base, the lateral portion of his C1 vertebra, with a significant soft tissue injury, as well as injury to the pharynx, the mouth, and a small vascular injury. [95]

Tsarnaev had written a message on the inside of the boat according to Ray McGovern in Consortium News he said "The [Boston] bombings were in retribution for the U.S. crimes in places like Iraq and Afghanistan [and] that the victims of the Boston bombing were collateral damage, in the same way innocent victims have been collateral damage in U.S. wars around the world." [96]

On April 26, Tsarnaev was transported by U.S. Marshals to the Federal Medical Center, Devens, [97] [98] a United States federal prison near Boston for male inmates requiring specialized or long-term medical or mental health care. He was held in solitary confinement in a segregated housing unit [99] with 23-hour-per-day lockdown. [100] [101]

Tsarnaev was the subject of a cover story for an August 2013 issue of Rolling Stone entitled "The Bomber: How a Popular, Promising Student Was Failed by His Family, Fell into Radical Islam and Became a Monster." The magazine drew heavy criticism for the flattering photo of Tsarnaev on the issue's cover. Boston Mayor Tom Menino wrote that the cover "rewards a terrorist with celebrity treatment." Massachusetts State Police sergeant Sean Murphy said that "glamorizing the face of terror is not just insulting to the family members of those killed in the line of duty it also could be an incentive to those who may be unstable to do something to get their face on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine". [102] The New York Times used the same photo on their front page in May 2013, [103] but did not draw criticism. Rolling Stone columnist Matt Taibbi criticized those who took offense at the cover, arguing that they associated Rolling Stone with glamour instead of news, [104] stating that The New York Times did not draw the criticism that Rolling Stone did, "because everyone knows the Times is a news organization. Not everyone knows that about Rolling Stone… because many people out there understandably do not know that Rolling Stone is also a hard-news publication." [104]

The editors of Rolling Stone posted the following response:

Our hearts go out to the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing, and our thoughts are always with them and their families. The cover story we are publishing this week falls within the traditions of journalism and Rolling Stone ' s long-standing commitment to serious and thoughtful coverage of the most important political and cultural issues of our day. The fact that Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is young, and in the same age group as many of our readers, makes it all the more important for us to examine the complexities of this issue and gain a more complete understanding of how a tragedy like this happens. –THE EDITORS [105]

Retailers such as CVS Pharmacy, [106] BJ's Wholesale Club (which additionally announced it would no longer carry Rolling Stone) [107] and others, announced that they would no longer sell the issue. [108]

Adweek magazine ranked the cover the "hottest" of the year after it doubled newsstand sales to 120,000. [109] The cover photo was taken by Tsarnaev himself, not a professional photographer. [110]

Questioning, charges and confessions Edit

Initially, Tsarnaev was questioned without being read his Miranda rights, because the Justice Department invoked Miranda's public safety exception. [111] He was to be questioned by a federal High-Value Interrogation Group, a special counterterrorism group composed of members of the FBI, CIA and Department of Defense that was created to question high-value detainees. [112] [113] [114] Later, after being read his Miranda rights, Tsarnaev stopped talking and declined to continue to cooperate with the investigation. [83]

Prosecutors initially argued for the public safety exception to be applied [115] to the statements obtained before the Miranda rights were read. However, the exception was not considered by the court because the prosecutors later decided not to use any of that evidence in their case against Tsarnaev. [116]

On April 22, he was charged with "using and conspiring to use a weapon of mass destruction resulting in death" and with "malicious destruction of properties resulting in death", both in connection with the Boston Marathon attacks. [2] [117] He was read his Miranda rights at his bedside by a federal magistrate judge of the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, nodded his head to answer the judge's questions, and answered "no" when asked whether he could afford a lawyer. [111]

Once convicted, he was eligible to face the death penalty. [118] He was prosecuted by assistant U.S. attorneys William Weinreb and Aloke Chakravarty, of the Anti-Terrorism and National Security Unit of the U.S. Attorney's Office in Boston. [119] His defense team included federal public defender Miriam Conrad, [120] William Fick, [121] and Judy Clarke. [122]

Middlesex County prosecutors also brought criminal charges against Tsarnaev for the murder of Sean Collier. A surveillance camera at MIT captured the brothers approaching Collier's car from behind. [123]

Officials said, after initial interrogations, that it was clear the attack was religiously motivated, but that so far there was no evidence that the brothers had any ties to Islamic terror organizations. [124] [125] Officials also said that Dzhokhar acknowledged his role in the bombings and told interrogators that he and Tamerlan were motivated by extremist Islamic beliefs [126] and the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq to carry out the bombing. [127] [128] Dzhokhar admitted during questioning that he and his brother were planning to detonate explosives in New York City's Times Square next. The brothers formed the plan spontaneously during the April 18 carjacking, but things went awry after the vehicle ran low on gas and they forced the driver to stop at a gas station, where he escaped. [129] Dzhokhar says he was inspired by online videos from Anwar al-Awlaki, [130] who also inspired Faisal Shahzad, the perpetrator of the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt. [131]

Investigators have so far found no evidence that Tsarnaev was involved in any jihadist activities, and, according to The Wall Street Journal, now believe that unlike his brother Tamerlan, Dzhokhar "was never truly radicalized". [132] Examinations of his computers did not reveal frequent visits to jihad websites, expressions of violent Islamist rhetoric or other suspicious activities. Some law enforcement officials told the WSJ that Tsarnaev "better fit[s] the psychological profile of an ordinary criminal than a committed terrorist".

On May 16, 2013, during CBS This Morning, CBS News senior correspondent John Miller said he had been told that Tsarnaev, while hiding in the boat, wrote a note claiming responsibility for the April 15 attack during the marathon. The note was scribbled with a pen on one of the inside walls of the cabin and said the bombings were payback for the U.S. military actions in Afghanistan and Iraq, and referred to the Boston victims as collateral damage, the same way Muslims have been in the American-led wars. He continued, "When you attack one Muslim, you attack all Muslims." He also said he did not mourn his brother's death because now Tamerlan was a martyr in paradise and that he (Dzhokhar) expected to join him in paradise. Miller's sources said the wall the note was written on had multiple bullet holes in it from the shots that were fired into the boat by police. According to Miller during the interview he gave on the morning show, he said that the note will be a significant piece of evidence in any Dzhokhar trial and that it is "certainly admissible", and paints a clear picture of the brothers' motive "consistent with what he told investigators while he was in custody". [133] [134] [135]

Trial Edit

Charges, pleas Edit

Tsarnaev's arraignment for 30 charges, including four counts of murder, occurred on July 10, 2013, in federal court in Boston before U.S. magistrate judge Marianne Bowler. It was his first public court appearance. [136] He pleaded not guilty to all 30 counts against him, which included using and conspiring to use a weapon of mass destruction resulting in death. [137] Tsarnaev was represented by Miriam Conrad, David Bruck, William Fick, Timothy G. Watkins and Judy Clarke. [138]

On January 30, 2014, United States Attorney General Eric Holder announced that the federal government would seek the death penalty against Tsarnaev. [139] A plea deal failed when the government refused to rule out the possibility of the death penalty.

The trial began on January 5, 2015 Tsarnaev pleaded not guilty to all thirty charges laid against him. The proceedings were led by Judge George O'Toole. [140] [141] Tsarnaev's attorney Judy Clarke admitted in her opening statement that Tsarnaev committed the acts in question, but sought to avert the death penalty by showing that his brother Tamerlan was the mastermind behind the acts. [142] Counter-terrorism expert Matthew Levitt also gave testimony.

Verdict Edit

On April 8, 2015, Tsarnaev was found guilty on all thirty counts of the indictment. The charges of usage of a weapon of mass destruction resulting in death, in addition to aiding and abetting, made Tsarnaev eligible for the death penalty. [143]

Bill and Denise Richard, parents of Martin Richard (the youngest of the three killed in the bombings and 1 of the 2 people killed by Dzhokhar's bomb, the other person being Chinese-exchange student Lingzi Lu), urged against a death sentence for Tsarnaev. They stated that the lengthy appeals period would force them to continually relive that day, and would rather see Tsarnaev spend life in prison without parole (possibility of release), and waive his right to appeal. [144]

Tsarnaev, who had displayed little emotion throughout his trial, appeared to weep when his relatives testified on May 4, 2015. [145] On May 15, 2015, the jury recommended that Tsarnaev be sentenced to death by lethal injection on six of 17 capital counts. [146]

According to the verdict forms completed by the jurors, three of 12 believed that Tsarnaev had taken part in the attack under his brother's influence two believed that he had been remorseful for his actions [147] two believed that Tamerlan, not Dzhokhar, had shot and killed Officer Collier three believed that his friends still care about him one believed that Tsarnaev's mother, Zubeidat Tsarnaeva, was to be blamed for the brothers' actions one believed that Tsarnaev would never be violent again in prison.

Massachusetts ended the death penalty for state crimes in 1984. However, because Tsarnaev was tried on federal charges, he was eligible for execution. [148]

Death sentence Edit

On June 24, 2015, Tsarnaev faced his victims in court as his death sentence was formally delivered. Victims and their families were able to present impact statements to the court, and Tsarnaev, who had been silent throughout his month-long trial, apologized to the injured and the bereaved in the bombings. [149]

On death row Edit

The following morning, on June 25, 2015, Tsarnaev was transferred to the United States Penitentiary, Florence High in Colorado as of July 17, 2015 he had been transferred to ADX Florence. [150] [151] A Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) spokesperson stated that "unique security management requirements" caused the agency to place Tsarnaev in Colorado instead of United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute, Indiana, where male death-row inmates are normally held. [152]

Al-Qaeda reaction Edit

According to The Guardian, in June 2016, Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri issued a threat to the United States warning of the "gravest consequences" should Tsarnaev be harmed. [153]


Lessons from the Boston Marathon Bombings

In the video above, the codirectors of BU’s Initiative on Cities, Thomas M. Menino (Hon.󈧅) and Graham Wilson, and some of the participants in the IoC’s inaugural symposium on March 24 talk about the lessons from last year’s Boston Marathon bombings. Photo by Cydney Scott

Few could have imagined last year’s Boston Marathon bombings. What the bombers themselves likely didn’t imagine was that they were attacking a city that had relentlessly drilled for such a catastrophe—not just security personnel, but players usually sidelined in other cities’ disaster rehearsals.

That preparation saved lives, speakers said Monday at a daylong symposium on lessons from the bombings, hosted by BU’s Initiative on Cities (IoC). Despite wave upon wave of injured, doctors and nurses at area hospitals “made the best care better and lost not one” of the wounded transported from the scene, Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick told more than 150 mayors, senior government officials, emergency and public health responders, and others in the Metcalf Trustee Ballroom. Three people died from the bombings, one of them BU student Lu Lingzi (GRS’13).

Former Boston mayor and IoC codirector Thomas Menino (Hon.’01) said trust between city leaders and residents, forged over many years, effectively deputized the latter into a volunteer force that assisted officials in the disaster. “People opened their doors to shaken runners” and performed other services, he said, while city employees threw away their job descriptions, helping with chores from clearing sidewalks “of blood and debris” to finding plywood to board up blasted windows.

“Leaders should try to build cores of citizen responders,” looking for ways to involve them in, and inform them of, city needs on a regular basis, Menino advised. “No city will be able to manage a crisis and rebuild…without the help of its people.”

Marathon bombing survivors Patrick Downs and his wife, Jessica Kensky, watch a video on the city’s recovery at the symposium. Photo by Cydney Scott

Unusually for emergency personnel, in the minutes after the blast, medical responders welcomed rather than rebuffed citizens’ help with the wounded, and “that saved lives,” said Richard Serino, deputy administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency at the time of the bombings.

Leaders shared personal memories of last April 15 and the almost weeklong hunt for the bombers that culminated in a manhunt in Watertown, Mass., the Friday after the attack, while area residents were asked to stay indoors. Alleged bomber Tamerlan Tsarnaev died in a shootout with police his brother, Dzhokhar, is awaiting trial.

Among the wise and consequential decisions in the hours after the attack, Patrick told the audience, were designating the FBI to lead the investigation having political leaders like himself and Menino make “personal contact with the victims and their families, a profound, but also meaningful” outreach Menino’s idea within hours to create One Fund Boston as a way for the public to donate to the victims and the “shelter in place” residents were asked to observe during the manhunt.

Integrating hospitals, universities, businesses, and other groups beyond law enforcement into exhaustive emergency planning before the Marathon was a move other cities are sure to emulate, panelists said.

“Planning, training, exercising,” summed up James Hooley, chief of the city’s Emergency Medical Services. “Sometimes it gets a little boring, repetitious, until you see what happens in the real world.”

Kate Walsh, president and CEO of Boston Medical Center (BMC), BU’s affiliated teaching hospital, echoed the mantra about constant rehearsal, while noting the necessity of discarding the rule book at times. For example, in the chaos after the bombing, frightened families showed up at BMC in search of relatives who were being cared for elsewhere. The only way to help was to phone counterparts at other hospitals, asking for patients by name. Privacy laws prohibit that, she said, and “I shouldn’t say this with the cameras running, but I personally violated them that day.”

A panel on lessons from survivors: survivors Karen Rand (from left) and David Fortier, Spaulding Hospital physical therapy director Cara Brickley, and Boston Public Health Commission executive director Barbara Ferrer (SPH’88). Photo by Jackie Ricciardi

Survivors who spoke lauded the care they received. But among the problems, Barbara Ferrer (SPH’88), executive director of the city’s Public Health Commission, cited occasions when “people were transferred without identification” to various hospitals, including panelist Karen Rand, who lost a leg in the blast. Rand’s family spent 12 hours after the bombing trying to find her, Ferrer said, adding that public health officials also need better contacts with the military, whose war experience has yielded the most advanced resources for dealing with bombing victims.

One Fund administrator Kenneth Feinberg, who also oversaw the September 11 Victim Compensation Fund, distributed more than $60 million in assistance to victims of the bombings and the fund has collected $12 million more since. Feinberg said the fund’s operations could be a blueprint for future compensation efforts key to its success was political leadership that “did not merely support One Fund. They created it and promoted it on a soapbox.” He recalled that Patrick and Menino rejected his suggestion to channel donations through foundations, instead creating a special, public nonprofit through the city. Although Feinberg had feared that approach would eat up months, “we had a 501c3 in a matter of days.” As a result of such steps, One Fund dwarfed compensation for victims of other horrific tragedies, including the mass shootings at Newtown, Conn., Aurora, Col., and Virginia Tech, according to Feinberg.

To objections from some that compensation decisions were unfair, Feinberg retorted, “Did I say it was fair? Bad things happen to good people every day in this city, and there’s not a One Fund Boston to distribute money.” Compensation can never be justified from victims’ perspective, he argued, but only from the community’s perspective, to “show the perpetrators of this horror how we take care of our own.”

Governor Deval Patrick (left) greeting former Boston mayor Thomas Menino. After their experience dealing with last year’s Marathon bombing, “we’ll be friends forever,” Patrick said at the BU symposium on the tragedy. Photo by Cydney Scott

The symposium was held the day after 60 Minutes broadcast interviews with FBI personnel about the decision to publicly release photos of the Tsarnaevs to help with their capture. Former Boston police commissioner Ed Davis, now a fellow at Harvard, said he pushed for that decision, and he defended it against criticisms that it prompted the brothers to flee in desperation during that flight they murdered MIT police officer Sean Collier.

“I knew we had information that was vital to my officers out on the street,” Davis told the audience, saying he also wanted to protect the public: “People had a right to defend themselves against these suspects. Terrorism is a deadly business….Tragically, Sean Collier was assassinated in his cruiser. But he had the opportunity to see those pictures….I think he was snuck up on, and murdered by cowards.”

Menino, who announced recently that he is battling cancer, looked hale at the daylong symposium. He and Patrick were mobbed by photographers as they chatted before the event, and although he ascended and left the podium slowly, he beamed at the crowd as he returned to his seat.


Watch the video: Boston Marathon Qualifying Pace - Surprising Time Trial Training Run! - #BostonPace vol 1 (June 2022).


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