Battle of Peterwardein - History

Battle of Peterwardein - History

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The Austrians declared war on the Ottoman Empire on April 13, 1716. On August 5th they defeated the Ottomans at the battle Peterwardein. The Austrians went on to conquer all of Hungary from the Ottomans.


In 1716 Grand Vizier Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha gathered a 150,000 strong Ottoman army near Belgrade , whose core consisted of 40,000 Janissaries and 20,000 Sipahi as well as 10,000 Crimean Tatars . At the end of July this crossed the Sava near Semlin and advanced on the right bank of the Danube towards Karlowitz .

The imperial military leader of Austria, Prince Eugene of Savoy , decided to oppose the Turks due to the strategically favorable location near Peterwardein. He had arranged for an entrenched camp to be set up under the protection of the local fortress and put the 80,000-strong imperial army on the march from the camp in Futog .

On August 2nd the first skirmishes between the imperial vanguard and Turkish cavalrymen. The next day the Grand Vizier stood in front of Peterwardein and immediately sent 30,000 janissaries against the imperial positions. They dug trenches and began bombarding the fortifications.

The core of the imperial army did not cross the Danube over two ship bridges until the night of August 5th and moved into camp.

Submitting to the Ottomans after a lengthy standoff at River Pruth

A year later, an outmaneuvered Russian army submitted to the Ottomans after a lengthy standoff on the River Pruth. Humiliated, Peter the Great accepted an unfavorable peace treaty that returned Azov and other fortresses to the Ottomans. With the Russians cowed, the Ottomans used a Venetian-inspired uprising in Montenegro as an excuse to resume their war with Venice in 1714. Grand Vizier Damad (also known as Silahdar) Ali-Pasha, the Sultan’s son-in-law and personal favorite, led the Turks in an assault on the Venetian Kingdom of the Morea (the Greek Peloponnese). The Ottomans were not so foolish, however, so as not to realize that their victories in Russia and in the Morea unnerved their old archenemy, Austria. 4

The battle and its effects

At 7 o'clock on the morning of August 5, Prince Eugene began the Austrian offensive. While the right flank under Prince Alexander von Württemberg stormed an Ottoman artillery battery, the Imperials rode into trouble in the center: deployment through the small gate of the fortress proceeded slowly. The Janissaries went on the counter-attack immediately and forced the imperial army back into the fortress. Prince Eugene sealed off the central incursion with additional troops and sent his cavalry into the Ottoman flanks, by which means they were encircled. The Grand Vizier could not manage to break the encirclement with his Sipahis nor could he regroup his troops. The Tatars even pulled back without engaging in combat.

After the defeated Ottomans were wiped out, Prince Eugene personally led his troops against the Grand Vizier's encampment. Supported by the guns of six frigates of the Danube fleet, the battle had been won by two o'clock, with the Grand Vizier himself among the slain. Barely 50,000 Ottomans returned to Belgrade. Soon, from Constantinople came a messenger from the Sultan with order of execution of Damat Ali. He is buried at the Belgrade Fortress, Kalemegdan, in tomb known as Damad Ali Pašino Turbe.

After the war, a church commemorating this event was built on Tekije, on the hill over battlefield, and is dedicated to Our Lady of Tekije, also known as Our Lady of the Snows. The church is special, because it has both Catholic and Orthodox altars and both Christian denominations use it. The site is a place of pilgrimage on every August 5.

After Petrovaradin, Prince Eugene turned against Timişoara (in Ottoman territory) and captured it despite great resistance and desperate attempts by the Ottomans to relieve the town. Eventually, they admitted defeat and signed a treaty with Austria and her ally Venice.

Battle of Karagak

At the request of the son of Kaikhosro Qvarqvare third, the Ottoman Empire invaded Imereti. By order of the Ottoman Sultan belibasto Erzurum Musa paşa, also known as Kizil-Ahmedlu, was sent to Samtskhe with 22.000 men to conquer the area. The Ottoman army, equipped with European guns besieged the Georgian garrison of the fortress of Oltisi now Oltu, Turkey. Bagrat called on neighboring Georgian potentates to come to the rescue. Only Prince Gurieli of Guria growth replied, while the Prince of Mingrelia, Levan I Dadiani, refused to participate in the Alliance, and later sided with the Ottomans, even traveling to Istanbul, where he received gifts and assurances of protection. In the minority of Bagrat surrendered to the Ottomans, but he resumed fighting as soon as the Ottoman main army retreated to Erzurum. The Georgians unexpectedly destroyed the remaining Ottoman garrison and later pursued the main army, which was decisively defeated at the battle Karagak, Musa Pasha was killed in the fighting.
The Ottomans returned in force two years, and moved into the Principality of Samtskhe, where Bagrat and his ally Kartli Luarsab I suffered a bitter defeat in the battle Sokhoista in 1545. As a result, Samtskhe pulled out from under the control of Bagrat, and came under the Ottoman hegemony.

1483 Battle of Paravani 1465 Battle of Mokhisi 1512 Battle of Kiziki 1520 Battle of Teleti 1522 Battle of Murjakheti 1535 Battle of Karagak 1543
fortress of Oltisi now Oltu, Turkey by the Ottoman beylerbey of Erzurum Musa Pasa also known as Kizil - Ahmedlu, and his subsequent defeat at Karagak in 1543
victorious at Karagak in 1543, but decisively defeated, in 1545, at Sokhoista, where Rostom s son Kaikhosro was killed. Samtskhe became vassal of the Ottoman
retaliated with a major invasion: Bagrat and Rostom were victorious at Karagak in 1543, but decisively defeated, in 1545, at Sokhoista, where Rostom s
The Battle of Kars August 19, 1745 was the last major engagement of the Ottoman - Persian War. The battle resulted in the complete and utter destruction
and Rostom were victorious at Karagak in 1543, but decisively defeated, in 1545, at Sokhoista. Samtskhe became vassal of the Ottoman Empire. Qvarqvare

The Battle of Urmia or, Urumiyeh was fought near Lake Urmia in north - western Persia between the Safavid and Ottoman empires and resulted in a decisive
indecisive Ongoing conflict List of wars involving Russia List of wars involving Armenia List of wars involving Azerbaijan List of Georgian battles

  • 1483 Battle of Paravani 1465 Battle of Mokhisi 1512 Battle of Kiziki 1520 Battle of Teleti 1522 Battle of Murjakheti 1535 Battle of Karagak 1543
  • fortress of Oltisi now Oltu, Turkey by the Ottoman beylerbey of Erzurum Musa Pasa also known as Kizil - Ahmedlu, and his subsequent defeat at Karagak in 1543
  • victorious at Karagak in 1543, but decisively defeated, in 1545, at Sokhoista, where Rostom s son Kaikhosro was killed. Samtskhe became vassal of the Ottoman
  • retaliated with a major invasion: Bagrat and Rostom were victorious at Karagak in 1543, but decisively defeated, in 1545, at Sokhoista, where Rostom s
  • The Battle of Kars August 19, 1745 was the last major engagement of the Ottoman - Persian War. The battle resulted in the complete and utter destruction
  • and Rostom were victorious at Karagak in 1543, but decisively defeated, in 1545, at Sokhoista. Samtskhe became vassal of the Ottoman Empire. Qvarqvare
  • The Battle of Urmia or, Urumiyeh was fought near Lake Urmia in north - western Persia between the Safavid and Ottoman empires and resulted in a decisive
  • indecisive Ongoing conflict List of wars involving Russia List of wars involving Armenia List of wars involving Azerbaijan List of Georgian battles

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The Battle of Karagak was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Imereti and the Ottoman Empire at the place of Karagak, Meskheti, in 1543. Battle of Sokhoista Hyperleap. Upcoming perk untuk Mode Battle royale Vic. 6969 41 Comments5 Shares. Share. Call Of Duty Mobile Newss Today at 7:18 AM. Karakter manta ray akan. Geographical places in Uruzgān, Afghanistan ca. Also known as Kizil Ahmedlu, and his subsequent defeat at Karagak in 1543. The Battle of Ancrum Moor was fought during the War of the Rough Wooing in. Full text of English Japanese conversation dictionary, preceded by. Battle of Khresili is similar to these military conflicts: Battle of Karagak, Ottoman invasion of western Georgia 1703, Levan Abashidze died 1757 and more.

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The Battle of Jeddah Turkish: Cidde Muharebesi was fought in 1813 at the west Arabian port of Jeddah as part of the Ottoman–Saudi War. The Ottoman army. Battle of Kozludzha Visually. The Battle of Sokhoista was fought between the Ottoman and Georgian armies at also known as Kizil Ahmedlu, and his subsequent defeat at Karagak in 1543. Charles Karaga Facebook, Twitter & MySpace on PeekYou. The Battle of Kozludzha also known as the Battle of Kozluca, fought on 20 June Old Style June 9 1774 near the village of Kozludzha now Suvorovo,. Battle of Preveza. At the battle of Murjakheti, the atabag was defeated, captured by Gurielis with a major invasion: Bagrat and Rostom were victorious at Karagak in 1543, but. Battle of Sokhoista Mili, The Best pedia Reader. A war so unproductive in the past that tshen the cu: x hud was u3ecı the stained smeae 7465, 75890, 7606, Karagak, 3. 7675, 75070. 7772, 7606, 7954. File:Banner of media Commons. The Battle of Cecora also known as the Battle of Tutora Tsetsora Fields was a battle during the Polish–Ottoman War 1620–21 between the Polish Lithuanian​.

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After Hungary was proclaimed as an independent state in October 1918, the soldiers of Hungarian descent were called on by the interim government to stop the fighting and return home. As a rule, this request was followed. Thus the association was withdrawn from its previous high command, the Austro-Hungarian War Ministry, and could not be demobilized by the latter and, at best, theoretically dissolved. It is currently not known whether, when and where such a dissolution took place.

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Belgrade was wrested from the Ottoman Empire after the 1688 siege, but two years later, the Ottomans recaptured it. Prince Eugene was seriously wounded during the first siege and now strongly supported the need for a river flotilla on the Danube as being essential for the conquest of Belgrade. The mission of the fleet was to provide assistance and support to the imperial army. Eugene managed to enlist the Emperor's support, and crews for the ships were hastily recruited in the Netherlands. The allies of Austria were Russia, which limited itself to a prudent line of defense, and Poland both allies were still militarily engaged in the Great Northern War against Sweden and Charles XII. Meanwhile, the states of the Holy Roman Empire provided only a modest cash contribution and Bavaria joined the side of Austria. [10]

After the success of his 1716 campaign, with the defeat of a much larger Ottoman army at the Battle of Petrovaradin and the successful siege of Temeşvar, Eugene of Savoy had one main objective: the conquest of the fortress of Belgrade. The city, located exactly at the confluence of the Sava river and the Danube, and its fortress, on an arm of the Sava, could only be attacked from the south. Its walls could resist both attacks from the south-east and those from the north-west, and this made it a key to the Balkans for the Habsburgs and Central Europe for the Ottoman Empire. [11]

On 14 May Eugene left Vienna sailing down the Danube to Buda. On 15 May he inspected the fortifications for a few hours then left for Futak near Petrovaradin where he arrived on 21 May to meet the bulk of his troops. [12] Before the troops were assembled, Prince Eugene began his march southwestwards towards Belgrade with about 70,000 men. These were reinforced by 5,700 Bavarians, Austrian troops stationed in the Banat, and volunteers from half the royal houses of Europe, including a company of Frenchmen led by the grandson of the late Louis XIV, for a total of about 100,000 men. In addition, Eugene commanded the Danube flotilla, consisting of about fifty boats of various types and ten naval vessels armed with light artillery. Eugene wanted to reach the city and begin the siege as soon as possible before any Ottoman troops could reinforce the city. The biggest problem was that the fortress could not be attacked from the south, and progress could only be made after crossing the Danube and the Sava. He chose the direct route, by crossing the Sava river, although, on this side, the fortress offered its strongest side. On 15 June the Imperial troops reached Pančevo, to the east of Belgrade. [13]

On the advice of one of his generals, Eugene chose to cross the Danube, approaching Belgrade from the east and rear, surprising the Ottomans who did not expect the enemy to cross the river at that point. He established the first camp at Višnjica the highest point, some 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away from Belgrade. On 18 June the city was surrounded. [13] Eugene deployed his artillery while the Imperial troops began digging trenches, in a semicircle from the Danube to the Sava, both in front of the fortress and at the rear to cover the imperials in the event of the arrival of a Turkish relief army. The fortification lines, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) long, were completed on 9 July providing a connection between Danube and Sava rivers. The right side of the camp was protected by Habsburg's Danube flotilla. Count von Hauben was sent to establish a bridgehead west of the Sava in order to have a supply and communication route to Petrovaradin and a liaison to Zemun troops. [14]

The Ottoman defenders in Belgrade numbered 30,000 men, under the command of Serasker Mustafa Pasha, who had been commander of the Temeşvar Fortress, one of the best commanders of the Ottomans. [15] Mustafa was ready to fight until reinforcements arrived, bombarding the imperial soldiers from above. Prince Eugene was informed that the huge Ottoman army of about 140,000 men sent to relieve Belgrade was approaching under the command of Grand Vizier (Hacı) Halil Pasha. [3] This army arrived on July 28. However, instead of taking action against the besiegers, they began to dig trenches. Prince Eugene's troops were caught between the fortress and the relief army in a dangerous crossfire. Because of losses to cannon fire as well as malaria, the strength of the Austrian army slowly diminished. The Ottomans wanted to let the enemy wear themselves down in a long siege. While the situation was rather worrying for the imperial troops, the Grand Vizier chose to wait. When the force of 40,000 Crimean Tatars arrived on 12 August, Halil Pasha, still reluctant to fight Eugene's army, chose to gather another war council instead of attacking. [16]

On 14 August, Belgrade was suddenly shaken by a powerful explosion: a mortar shell launched from Zemun struck the ammunition store inside the fortress killing 3,000 defenders in the explosion. [4] Prince Eugene immediately chose to confront the massive Ottoman relief army, summoning his commanders for a council of war, he ordered a surprise attack, planned in the smallest details, for the night between 15 and 16 August. [14]

"Either I will take Belgrade or the Turks will take me"

According to the war order, the infantries under Field Marshal Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg would be protecting the center, while the imperial cavalries commanded by Hungarian Field Marshal Count János Pálffy the left and right wings of the entrenchment. [7] Apart from the 8 battalions, about 10,000 men, left under Field Marshal Count George de Brown [f] to hold the trenches facing the fortress and four infantry battalions, under Count Peter Josef de Viard protecting the camp and the bridgeheads, the entire army was involved in the attack a total of 52 infantry battalions, 53 grenadier companies, and 180 cavalry squadrons supported by 60 cannons [5] a force of about 60,000 soldiers. [17]

On the Ottoman right side were 10,000 county soldiers under Rumeli Beylerbeyi as well as 20,000 sipahis and armored silahdar, [6] on the left 10,000 province soldiers with the 40,000 Crimean cavalry were commanded by Beylerbeyi Maktulzade Ali Pasha, in the center were 80,000 janissaries, a total of 160,000 soldiers. [6]

The attack started as scheduled before midnight of 15 August, a heavy fog arose covered the battlefield, according to Lieutenant General of Infantry Maffei the fog was so thick it quickly became impossible to distinguish between friend and enemy [18] Württemberg advanced the Imperial center while Count Pálffy's cavalries on left and right the night attack surprised the Ottomans and they woke to panic confusion however several Ottoman infantry battalions managed to corner the right side of Pálffy's cavalry after it lost its way in the fog this already disrupting the order of war the Ottoman infantry opened fire with support from their left Spahis cavalry. General Count Claude Florimond de Mercy with the second cavalry line attacked immediately in support of Pálffy, followed by the infantry of Maximilian Adam Graf Starhemberg, the thrust succeeded in pushing the Ottomans back all the way to their trenches. [14] Because of the simultaneous Habsburg cavalry and infantry attack, the Ottomans retreated leaving their batteries. [18]

After the first hours of fighting, while the sun rose but the intense fog still covered the battlefield, the Ottomans perceived an opening in the center of the Austrian array and attacked in force, the Ottomans found themselves in between the two wings with a clear advantage but seemed to be unaware of it. Prince Eugene understood that he could turn the situation to his advantage since he could anticipate now the Ottoman battle plan he ordered von Braunschweig-Bevern’s second infantry line to counterattack placing the Bavarian troops in the front. Then Eugene personally led the attack at the head of the Austrian cavalry reserves. Although Eugene was wounded, his cuirassiers and hussars stormed the flanks of the Ottoman janissaries in a tremendous onslaught. The left and right Habsburg wings managed to finally restore contact with the help of the central infantry. Eugene's attack decision completely changed the situation, not only pushed the enemy back but also took the trenches, throwing the Ottoman camp into turmoil and causing many soldiers to flee. [19] The Ottoman 18-gun battery on the Badjina Heights was captured and the remaining troops withdraw to the camp where the Grand Vizier ordered a full retreat. [18]

After 10 hours of fighting, the battle was over. Ottoman losses numbered between 15,000 to 20,000 men including Erzurum governor Mehmet Pasha, Chief Admiral Ibrahim Pasha and Rumeli governor Vezir şatr Ali Pasha, 5,000 wounded soldiers and all of their 166 artillery pieces. [7] The Austrians suffered fewer than 6,000 losses, Pálffy, Württemberg, and the young Maurice de Saxe were wounded, and Prince Eugene was wounded for the 13th time. [g] The Grand Vizier and the remains of his army escaped first to Smederevo then Niš. They were harassed by Serbian infantry, Serbian militias, Hajduks, and the Habsburg light cavalry made up of Hungarian hussars. [20] The trophies of war included nearly two hundred cannons, one hundred and fifty flags, nine horsetails, and the captured war chest. James Oglethorpe, an aide de camp of the prince, reported that Eugene had a Te Deum performed in the tent of the Grand Vizier on 19 August after taking possession of it. [21]
The garrison, deprived of relief and with soldiers about to revolt, surrendered five days later to the Austrians, on 21 August, in exchange for safe passage from the city, which Eugene granted 25,000 residents were given the right to freely leave the city honorably. [22] The entire muslim population together with the remaining Ottoman garrison troops left unhurt taking their basic possessions with them. [23] [24]

Belgrade was transferred back into Habsburg Austrian hands after 196 years, Prince Eugene crowned his career with a great victory, the Ottoman dominance in the Balkans suffered a severe blow. A year later, the Peace of Passarowitz was signed, completing the Treaty of Karlowitz of 1699. [7] Austria obtained at the expense of the Ottoman Empire the Banat of Temesvár which returned to the kingdom of Hungary, Belgrade, northern Serbia, Wallachia, and other neighboring areas. Austria reached its maximum expansion in the Balkans. Prince Eugene of Savoy crowned his career as the most successful military leader of his time, he retired from active military service. After this defeat, the Ottoman Empire would no longer hope to expand in Europe but merely sought to retain conquered territory. Belgrade would remain a territory under the domination of Austria for over twenty years until new Ottoman–Habsburg rivalries forced another series of lengthy and costly battles. [7]

Timeline: 1711 to 1720

1711 In Britain, the joint-stock South Sea Company is founded for the purpose of trading in the South Seas and parts of America.

1711 In Britain's Carolina Province in America, tensions have existed between Quakers and those associated with the Church of England. Thomas Cary leads a rebellion against the governorship of Edward Hyde, a member of the Church of England. The rebellion fails, followed by Quakers being effectively excluded from North Carolina politics.

1711 European settlement in North Carolina has been a disaster for Tuscarora "Indians." In September they attack British, Dutch and German settlers, beginning the Tuscarora War.

1712 The English use a steam powered device to pump water out of a mine. It is the first commercially successful engine.

1712 A slave rebellion in New York results in the death of six whites and the execution of twelve slaves.

1713 Small pox brought to the Cape Town region decimates Khoikhoi people and kills many whites.

1713 The Treaties of Utrecht end the War of Spanish Succession and Queen Anne's War. France and Britain are exhausted, and Britain signs after fearing an alliance between Spain and Austria. The British receive what they rename Nova Scotia. They also receive fur trading posts in the Hudson Bay area. Philip V, grandson of France's Bourbon king, Louis XIV, is recognized as King of Spain. Spain's loses much of its empire, with Savoy getting Sicily and part of Milan, Naples, Sardinia, part of Milan and possession of what had been the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium). The latter passes to the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI of Austria and becomes the "Austrian Netherlands." British acquire control of Gibraltar. The French are now to view Austria as their nation's primary rival on the European continent. And with the war's end a bigger effort can be made against piracy.

1713 Spain and Britain sign a 30-year contract in which Britain is to have a monopoly in supplying Spain with slaves for the Americas.

1714 Charles of Sweden and 1500 of his troops make it back to Sweden by way of Vienna, with help from the Habsburg monarchy in Vienna, which sees Sweden as a counter to the growing power of Prussia.

1714 Some Anglican conservatives have been trying to revive the union between the state and the Church of England, fearing that if people were left free to choose their religion there would be a dramatic spread of religious sectarianism and dissent. Conservatives also believe that religious disunity is an affront to God, that it threatens the salvation of individuals and national security. Some Anglican conservatives blame crime and vice on religious disunity.

1715 The Ottoman Turks take advantage of the weakness of Venice and reconquer Morea (the Peloponnesian Peninsula Peninsula) lost by the Turks with the Treaty of Karlowitz in the year 1699. People in Morea are glad to be rid of the Venetians, who taxed them more than the Ottomans.

1716 The Austrians are alarmed by Ottoman expansion. To defend Christians they declare war and defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of Peterwardein (Petrovaradin) 70 kilometers northwest of Belgrade.

1717 To help against the Ottomans, Pope Clement XI finances a Spanish fleet, which the Spanish use instead to regain Sardinia and Sicily.

1717 For 3,000 rupees, the Mughal emperor, Farukh-siyar, grants the British East India Company duty-free trading rights. The British are given the right to mint their own silver rupee coins for use within the Mughal empire.

1718 In North Carolina, the English pirate Edward Teach, known as Blackbeard, is hunted down and killed.

1718 Sweden's Charles XII dies fighting on Sweden's frontier with what today is Norway.

1718 The French colonist Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville founds New Orleans, choosing a site seen as having strategic advantages militarily as well as having access to the gulf and trading advantages. The spot is dry, but it is the fall season.

1719 In the spring season New Orleans floods, and the building of levees begins, to continue for three centuries.

1719 The British, Dutch and Austrians have teamed up against Spain's move into Sardinia and Sicily. The British sink the Spanish navy. Austria has settled with the Ottomans, gaining northern Bosnia, Banat, Belgrade, much of Serbia and a part of Walachia. Morea is to remain under the Ottomans.

1720 In agreement with Austria, the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II, trades Sicily for Sardinia. Sicily is to be ruled by Austria.

1720 Plague arrives at the port of Marseilles, France &ndash the last of the great bubonic plagues in Western and Central Europe.

1720 Observing constitutional government by the British and Dutch, and influenced by John Locke, opposition to absolutism has been growing among the Swedes. King Fredrik I and Queen Ulrica Leonora have agreed to become constitutional monarchs.

New conflicts with the Turks and the Bourbons

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Ottoman Empire had remained neutral toward Austria. But the Turks had attacked the possessions of the Venetians on the Peloponnese and on the Ionian Islands. Austria tried to intervene and finally declared war. Prince Eugene defeated the Turks near the fortress of Peterwardein (Petrovaradin, now part of Novi Sad, Serbia) and conquered the strong bastion of Temesvár (now Timișoara, Romania) in 1716. In the summer campaign of 1717, Belgrade again came into the hands of the imperial troops after a battle was won against a Turkish relief army. In the Treaty of Passarowitz (1718), a frontier line was agreed upon that corresponded to the de facto situation. The Turks had to cede to the Austrians the Banat region, the Turkish part of Syrmia (Srem, now part of Vojvodina, Serbia), Walachia Minor as far as the Olt (Aluta) River, northern Serbia, Belgrade, and a strip of land along the frontier in northern Bosnia. A favourable trade agreement was also concluded.

During the Turkish war another crisis emerged. The Spanish minister Giulio Alberoni tried to initiate a policy of expansion in Italy. When Spanish troops landed in Sardinia and Sicily, the emperor formed an alliance with Great Britain and France, later joined by the Dutch Republic (the Quadruple Alliance). After the English defeated the Spanish fleet, Madrid recalled its troops from the disputed territories. Austria received the more prosperous Sicily in exchange for Sardinia, which fell to Savoy. Charles then agreed to recognize the Spanish Bourbons. The gains from the Quadruple Alliance plus those of the Treaty of Passarowitz gave the Habsburgs the largest territory they were ever to rule. Their domains were far from unified, however, with the individual provinces showing a wide national, economic, cultural, and constitutional diversity.

Trading interests soon interfered with the empire’s alliance with the maritime powers of Britain and the Dutch Republic. At first the attempts of the Ostend Company, which was backed by Charles VI, to enter into trade with India were quite successful. Because of the antipathy of the maritime powers, however, it seemed advisable to find an alternative to trade with Dutch and British colonial markets in the vast transatlantic empire of Spain. In 1725 Charles entered into an alliance with Spain, whereupon France, Great Britain, and Prussia formed a rival alliance. But soon after Russia was won over to the Habsburg cause, Prussia changed sides. As the outbreak of a European war seemed imminent, attempts were made at the Congress of Soissons to relax political tensions. Spain abruptly changed its alliances and concluded a treaty (1729) with England and France, the Dutch Republic joining later. When Russia also began to waver, Prince Eugene tried to fall back on the traditional alliance with the maritime powers. After prolonged and difficult negotiations, Britain in 1731 accepted the Pragmatic Sanction, the emperor in return giving a promise not to marry his daughter Maria Theresa, the Habsburg heiress, to a prince who was himself heir to important domains. Austria finally dissolved the Ostend Company, having already suspended its charter in 1727. Charles VI then invested a great deal of energy in his endeavours to secure the recognition and the guarantee of the Pragmatic Sanction in the German diet. In this he was opposed by Bavaria and the elector of Saxony, but Austria finally obtained the guarantee of the Pragmatic Sanction at the Regensburg Diet (1732).

The question of the Polish succession led to a revival of the Austrian conflict with the Bourbon countries. Austria, with Prussia and Russia, favoured Augustus III of Saxony, the son of the deceased king, whereas France backed Stanisław I (Stanisław Leszczyński). On the military intervention of Russia in Poland, the Bourbons attacked Austria. The issue came to be mixed up with the problem of Lorraine France dreaded that, on the impending marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, the latter’s domains would be united with Austria’s, and French plans for the acquisition of Lorraine would be thwarted. France, Sardinia, and Spain simultaneously opened the war against Austria in 1733 (see Polish Succession, War of the). Prince Eugene, who was now aged, was able only to prevent a major success of the enemy on the Rhine. On the Italian front the Habsburgs fared even worse. The Battle of Parma ended undecided, but the Austrians were finally beaten near Guastalla in northern Italy. The small Austrian force that was stationed in southern Italy was unable to resist the Spanish attack, and Sicily and Naples were occupied by the Spaniards. In 1735 a Russian relieving corps reinforced the Habsburg front on the Rhine, and in northern Italy there were also a few successful operations of some local importance.

Direct contacts between Austria and France eventually led to the preliminary Peace of Vienna (October 3, 1735). Austria lost Naples and Sicily, which fell to a secondary branch of the Bourbons, and had to cede a tract of territory in Lombardy to Sardinia. As some compensation, Austria received Parma and Piacenza. Francis Stephen of Lorraine was promised Tuscany but had to renounce his hereditary duchy. On these conditions, France agreed to recognize the Pragmatic Sanction. The final peace was then concluded at Vienna in 1738.

Prince Eugene had died during the War of the Polish Succession. It soon proved disastrous that a successor of similar capacity was not found. During the second Turkish war of Charles VI (1737–39), Austria joined in the Turkish-Russian conflict but without coordination of military operations. The Austrians, furthermore, underrated the Turkish forces and were themselves reduced by epidemics. The fortress of Niš, Serbia, was taken but was lost again soon afterward. Peace negotiations conducted at Nemirov, Ukraine, were broken off, and the war went on. The Austrians lost another battle at Grocka, Serbia. Again peace negotiations were launched, in the course of which the larger part of the gains of the Peace of Passarowitz were lost. More disquieting even than the territorial losses was the loss in prestige. The epoch that had seen the rise of Austria to a great power thus ended with reverses.

Watch the video: Eugene of Savoy: One of the Greatest Generals of Early Modern Europe (June 2022).


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