We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
282 BCE - 263 BCE
Philetaerus, founder of the Attalid Dynasty, governs Pergamon.
263 BCE - 241 BCE
Reign of Eumenes I at Pergamon.
Eumenes rebels and wins against the Seleucid Antiochus I. Beginning of the Pergamon Empire.
241 BCE - 197 BCE
Reign of Attalus I at Pergamon.
c. 237 BCE - 241 BCE
Attalus I of Pergamon defeats the Galatians at the headwaters of the Caioc River.
The Aegosages Celts enter Anatolia under Attalos of Pergamon.
197 BCE - 159 BCE
Reign of Eumenes II at Pergamon.
Maximum extent of the Pergamon Empire after Apamea peace.
c. 188 BCE
The treaty of Apamea Kibotos. Peace and alliance is established between the Seleucid Empire and Rome joined by its allies, such as Pergamon and Rhodes. The Seleucids have to evacuate all the land and the cities from Asia Minor and to pay a huge war indemnity.
187 BCE - 183 BCE
The Attalids of Pergamon are at war with Bithynia.
183 BCE - 179 BCE
The Attalids of Pergamon are at war with Pontius.
160 BCE - 138 BCE
Reign of Attalus II at Pergamon.
138 BCE - 133 BCE
Reign of Attalus III at Pergamon.
Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, bequeathes the whole of Pergamon to Rome.
The Attalid dynasty ( / ˈ æ t əl ɪ d / Koinē Greek: Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών , romanized: Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.
|Country||Kingdom of Pergamon|
|Current region||Western Asia Minor|
|Place of origin||Paphlagonia|
|Final ruler||Attalus III|
|Final head||Eumenes III|
|Deposition||133 BC ( 133 BC )|
The kingdom was a rump state that had been left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' lieutenants, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father and expanded the city into a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Pergamon (colored olive), shown at its greatest extent in 188 BC
The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Kingdom of Thrace.
The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, father of Philetaerus who came to power in 281 BC following the collapse of the Kingdom of Thrace, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I (241-197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II (197-158 BC), against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.
The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. When Attalus III (138-133 BC) died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.
According to Christian teaching and tradition, Pergamum is where Satan dwells, where his throne is, and the first bishop of Pergamon, Antipas, was martyred there in ca. 92 AD. ( Revelation 2:13 )
The Ottoman Sultan Murad III had two large alabaster urns transported from the ruins of Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Ώ]
Anatomical and medical studies
Galen regarded anatomy as the foundation of medical knowledge, and he frequently dissected and experimented on such lower animals as the Barbary ape (or African monkey), pigs, sheep, and goats. Galen’s advocacy of dissection, both to improve surgical skills and for research purposes, formed part of his self-promotion, but there is no doubt that he was an accurate observer. He distinguished seven pairs of cranial nerves, described the valves of the heart, and observed the structural differences between arteries and veins. One of his most important demonstrations was that the arteries carry blood, not air, as had been taught for 400 years. Notable also were his vivisection experiments, such as tying off the recurrent laryngeal nerve to show that the brain controls the voice, performing a series of transections of the spinal cord to establish the functions of the spinal nerves, and tying off the ureters to demonstrate kidney and bladder functions. Galen was seriously hampered by the prevailing social taboo against dissecting human corpses, however, and the inferences he made about human anatomy based on his dissections of animals often led him into errors. His anatomy of the uterus, for example, is largely that of the dog’s.
Galen’s physiology was a mixture of ideas taken from the philosophers Plato and Aristotle as well as from the physician Hippocrates, whom Galen revered as the fount of all medical learning. Galen viewed the body as consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for sensation and thought the heart and arteries, responsible for life-giving energy and the liver and veins, responsible for nutrition and growth. According to Galen, blood is formed in the liver and is then carried by the veins to all parts of the body, where it is used up as nutriment or is transformed into flesh and other substances. A small amount of blood seeps through the lungs between the pulmonary artery and pulmonary veins, thereby becoming mixed with air, and then seeps from the right to the left ventricle of the heart through minute pores in the wall separating the two chambers. A small proportion of this blood is further refined in a network of nerves at the base of the skull (in reality found only in ungulates) and the brain to make psychic pneuma, a subtle material that is the vehicle of sensation. Galen’s physiological theory proved extremely seductive, and few possessed the skills needed to challenge it in succeeding centuries.
Building on earlier Hippocratic conceptions, Galen believed that human health requires an equilibrium between the four main bodily fluids, or humours—blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each of the humours is built up from the four elements and displays two of the four primary qualities: hot, cold, wet, and dry. Unlike Hippocrates, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, as well as in the body as a whole. This modification of the theory allowed doctors to make more precise diagnoses and to prescribe specific remedies to restore the body’s balance. As a continuation of earlier Hippocratic conceptions, Galenic physiology became a powerful influence in medicine for the next 1,400 years.
Galen was both a universal genius and a prolific writer: about 300 titles of works by him are known, of which about 150 survive wholly or in part. He was perpetually inquisitive, even in areas remote from medicine, such as linguistics, and he was an important logician who wrote major studies of scientific method. Galen was also a skilled polemicist and an incorrigible publicist of his own genius, and these traits, combined with the enormous range of his writings, help to explain his subsequent fame and influence.
It was Alexander the Great who removed Pergamum from Persian control, completely changing the city’s landscape into a series of terraces. When Alexander died, his general Lysimachus took control of the region as the King of Thrace.
When Lysimachus died in 281 BC, Pergamum and the surrounding area fell into the hands of the man he had in turn charged with protecting it: Philetarus. Philetarus ruled Pergamum as an independent ruler.
Through a series of successions, Pergamum fell under the rule of Attalus I and then his son Eumenes II. Both of these kings were part of the Hellenistic Attalid dynasty and it was during this time that the majority of Pergamum’s most celebrated buildings and monuments were constructed, especially under Eumenes II (197-159 BC).
Pergamum thrived, becoming the centre of the Pergamese kingdom which greatly supported Rome and allied with them against the Macedonians in the 3rd and 2nd centuries AD. In 129 BC, Pergamum became part of the Roman Empire, bequeathed to Rome by Attalus III who had no heir. This accounts for the presence of Roman artwork and temples.
Julius Caesar himself once visited the city. It was here that Caesar imprisoned and executed the very pirates who had kidnapped him in 75 BC after he hunted them down following his release. Later, Pergamum became part of the Byzantine Empire and remained an important city and metropolis throughout these periods.
The Seat of Satan: Nazi Germany
In the first century, it was a thriving city, but after countless wars and natural disasters, the temples of Pergamum lay in ruins. By the mid-19th century, the once-great city of Pergamum was barely a memory.
Locals used this site as a quarry, looting the marble for new buildings, until 1864, when a German engineer paid a visit to Pergamum. Carl Humann was shocked by the destruction of the priceless artifacts, so he got permission to excavate the ancient city himself. What he found was one of the greatest monuments in ancient history: the Altar of Zeus.
Stone by stone, the altar was excavated and taken to Berlin, where it was reassembled and placed in its own museum. The Pergamon Museum opened in 1930, with the altar as its centerpiece.
Eventually, the altar caught the eye of a young man named Albert Speer, the new chief architect for the Nazi Party. Germany’s new chancellor, Adolf Hitler, had commissioned him to design the parade grounds for the party rallies in Nuremberg.
For inspiration, Speer turned to the Pergamon Altar.
“If you read the German written by Speer, he gives all the credit to Hitler,” says Dr. Anthony R. Santoro, the Distinguished Professor of History & President Emeritus of Christopher Newport University. “I think he's like a good interior decorator that someone hires, and that client already has the ideas of what he wants to do, and the decorator agrees with him. So that's what Speer did.”
Using the altar as his model, Speer created a colossal grandstand at the rally grounds in Nuremberg. It became known as the Zeppelintribüne. After the war, only a small part of it was left standing.
“If you look at the kinds of ceremonies that were on display at Zeppelin field with the reconstructed temple there patterned on the Pergamum Altar, you'll see photographs of Hitler, descending down the steps, like a tribune of the people from old Roman times,” says Santoro.
In the middle of the grandstand, where the bronze Altar of Zeus stood in ancient Pergamum, Albert Speer built Hitler’s podium. Hitler wanted to create what he called a "mass experience," and Speer came up with the perfect idea.
Most of the Nuremberg rallies were held at night, so Speer surrounded the grandstand with 150 searchlights. The columns of light extended for miles in the sky, creating the mystical effect Hitler wanted:
"The concluding meeting in Nuremberg must be exactly as solemnly and ceremonially performed as a service of the Catholic Church."
This effect was known as the "Cathedral of Light,” and it became a hallmark of Hitler’s events. It was even used in the closing ceremonies of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin.
“Well, it's a very inexpensive way of creating interest,” says Santoro. “Hitler is very much aware of German mythology, his favorite entertainment is German opera, certainly Wagner and all the mythological stories that go with Wagner. And certainly anytime you're looking at mythology and gods, you're looking skyward. So I don't think it's an accident that he says to Speer, ‘Let's create an environment of looking towards the heavens, and that's what it does.’”
Inside the rally grounds, thousands of Nazi Party members marched in torchlight parades.
“These events happen at night, which gives a contrasting effect of fear, of strength, of the unknown, of mystery, and that's all intended by Hitler,” says Santoro. “He's very theatrical. Torchlight and fire have always been part of German mythology. I think there's a quasi-mystical, semi-religious context to these torch parades there are many of them in Nazi Germany.”
From his podium, Hitler mesmerized the crowds:
"Not every one of you sees me and i do not see every one of you. But I feel you. and you feel me!"
Then under the Cathedral of Light, thousands of Germans swore what they called a “holy oath."
"Blazing flames hold us together into eternity.
No one shall take this faith from those who are dedicated to Germany."
From 1933 to 1938, hundreds of thousands of people gathered at the Zeppelin field in Nuremberg every September for the Reichstparteitag, or Nazi Party Congress. But it was the 1934 rally that captured the attention of the world, thanks to what may be the greatest propaganda film of all time.
“The 1934 party film, Triumph of the Will, which was released in 1935, is the consummate picture of Hitler,” says Santoro.” No other film was ever made of Hitler, and he didn't want any other film made of him. Everything that he wanted people to know about the Nazis is in that film. It was shown continuously for 12 years in Germany.”
Triumph of the Will was directed by a young German actress named Leni Riefenstahl.
“She was a famous movie star. I would characterize her as the female Indiana Jones,” says Santoro. “She was pretty and shapely and popular and romantic. Hitler's a bit of a romantic, and so he liked her.”
The film portrayed Hitler as a godlike figure, the savior of the German people.
“Hitler's entrance in the film is from the sky, like a messiah who would be descending down through the heavens, through the clouds to the faithful waiting for him below,” says Santoro. “Anytime he appears, any people who are close to him have these starry-eyed looks – almost these glazed looks as if they're in the presence of an unearthly being. That's intentional.”
In his speeches, Hitler often borrowed Christian phrases, like in one scene with the Hitler Youth.
“After they sing their song to him, Hail Hitler to Thee, which is almost like a religious chant, he goes into his speech, and he says things like, ‘You are flesh of our flesh and blood of our blood.’ Well, he borrows that from the Roman Catholic ritual, with which he's very familiar. It's a very physical statement, and it resonates with that crowd.”
Hitler's popularity skyrocketed after the release of Triumph of the Will. The next year, more than a million Germans came to Nuremberg to hear his speech.
On the evening of September 15, 1935, Hitler announced the Nuremberg Laws.
“The law for the protection of German Blood and German Honor is intended to begin the marginalization process of the Jewish people,” says Santoro. “Hitler had a lot of popular support for much of his time in office. One doesn't get popular support by saying to the public we're going to put the Jewish people in gas chambers and incinerate them. What he did was gradually marginalize them.”
It was also in Nuremberg that Hitler used the phrase “Final Solution” for the first time in public.
“Bitter complaints have come in from countless places citing the provocative behavior of Jews. This law is an attempt to find a legislative solution. If this attempt fails, it will be necessary to transfer [the Jewish problem] . to the National Socialist party for a final solution."
The Nuremberg Laws stripped the Jews of their rights as citizens.
“They couldn't teach in public universities, they couldn't practice medicine in public hospitals,” says Santoro. “They couldn't fly the national flag, but they could fly the Jewish flag. Then that was coupled with the Reich citizenship law, which said that Jewish people in Germany were subjects of the Reich, but not citizens.”
Hitler's "Final Solution" is now known as the Holocaust, a word that comes from a Greek word meaning "a wholly burnt animal sacrifice."
In AD 92, the faithful martyr Antipas died, a "wholly burnt sacrifice" on the altar of Zeus in Pergamum, the place the Book of Revelation calls "the Throne of Satan."
Centuries later in Nuremberg, in the center of a redesigned Pergamon Altar, the bronze bull was replaced by a podium. From there, Adolf Hitler announced his "Final Solution" to the world. and this time, the burnt sacrifice was six million Jews.
Key Facts & Information
History of Pergamon
- According to archaeological finds, settlement of Pergamon can be traced back to as early as the 8th century BC.
- Although bronze age tools have been found in areas around Pergamon, no concrete evidence exists that people inhabited the area during the Bronze age.
- Literary records indicate that the earliest mention of Pergamon was by a Greek soldier and writer named Xenophon, when he described the military command – the march of the Ten Thousand – coming to an end at Pergamon in 400 BC.
- When Alexander the Great died in 323 BC, his generals divided his conquered territory, and this resulted in power struggles and disagreements about who would get what territory.
- In 281 BC, Pergamon was ruled by Philetaerus (pictured on the coin on the right), who founded the Attalid dynasty his family ruled Pergamon for several decades.
- For the next hundred years or so, Pergamon was ruled by different people: Eumenes, Attalus I, Eumenes II, and so forth.
- During the rule of Attalus III, Peramon was given to the Roman republic so that it could be transformed into the Roman province of Asia and stand as capital.
- Many people in Pergamon didn’t like this, so they revolted this unruliness cost Pergamon its status as capital, and it went to a nearby city by the name of Ephesus.
- While under the rule of Hadrian, Pergamon was given the title of metropolis, and thus was given building grants to construct temples, a stadium, a theatre, amphitheatre, and lavish spas.
Archaeology, Structures, and Housing at Pergamon
- The earliest and most thorough description of Pergamon comes from Thomas Smith in 1668 who wrote a detailed description of the area.
- At the beginning of the 19th century, Charles Robert Cockerell (pictured to the right) gave a detailed account of the area, while Otto Magnus von Stackelberg sketched his surroundings.
- A proper volume of plans, descriptions, and views of the city and its ruins were drawn up by Charles Texier, a French archaeologist, historian, and architect.
- Throughout the late 19th century, the German engineer Carl Humann visited Pergamon, planned topological studies, organized archaeological expeditions, and transported fragments of artifacts to Germany (known back then as the Ottoman Empire) for analysis.
- Humann’s work led to the opening of the Pergamon Museum in the Ottoman Empire in 1907.
- Excavations of the site were interrupted by the First World War, but resumed in 1927 under Theodor Wiegand until 1939. Resuming after the Second World War, excavations continued.
- After the First World War, all excavations were taken to the Bergama Museum in Turkey, instead of to the Pergamon Museum in Germany.
- A small portion of artifacts were also taken to the Istanbul Archaeological Museum after it opened in 1891.
Fun Facts About Pergamon
- Pergamon really only became important during the Hellenistic Age (323-30 BC).
- The fortress and palace of the attalid dynasty was situated on the peak of the hill, and the town took up the lower slopes.
- Pergamon is one of the best examples of meticulous city planning during the Hellenistic Age.
- The sit of Pergamon provided inspiration for many fine Hellenistic and Roman works of art, including the Great Altar, which is now in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin (pictured below).
- Som major sites at Pergamon are the Great Altar, Theatre, Temple of Dionysus, Temple of Athena, the Library, Trajaneum, Gymnasium, the Sanctuary of Hera, Sanctuary of Demeter, Sanctuary of Asclepius, and the Serapis Temple.
World Heritage Sites: Pergamon Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Pergamon across 22 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use World Heritage Sites: Pergamon worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Pergamon which was an opulent ancient Greek city located close to the Aegean Sea in Turkey’s Aegean region. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon and was one of the major cultural centres of Greece. It became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Pergamon Facts.
- Map Puzzle.
- Mythological Links.
- Biography of Charles Cockerell.
- The Hellenistic Age.
- Opinion Paragraph.
- Pergamon Wordsearch.
- Answer to the Altar.
- Our Five Senses.
- Pergamon Acrostic.
- Pergamon Crossword.
Link/cite this page
If you reference any of the content on this page on your own website, please use the code below to cite this page as the original source.
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.
Geologists Produce New Timeline of Earth’s Paleozoic Climate ChangesA finger points to a small trilobite fossil from the Ordovician strata in Svalbard, Norway. Image Credit : Adam Jost
The temperature of a planet is linked with the diversity of life that it can support. MIT geologists have now reconstructed a timeline of the Earth’s temperature during the early Paleozoic era, between 510 and 440 million years ago — a pivotal period when animals became abundant in a previously microbe-dominated world.
In a study appearing today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers chart dips and peaks in the global temperature during the early Paleozoic. They report that these temperature variations coincide with the planet’s changing diversity of life: Warmer climates favored microbial life, whereas cooler temperatures allowed more diverse animals to flourish.
The new record, more detailed than previous timelines of this period, is based on the team’s analysis of carbonate muds — a common type of limestone that forms from carbonate-rich sediments deposited on the seafloor and compacted over hundreds of millions of years.
“Now that we have shown you can use these carbonate muds as climate records, that opens the door to looking back at this whole other part of Earth’s history where there are no fossils, when people don’t really know much about what the climate was,” says lead author Sam Goldberg, a graduate student in MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences (EAPS).
Goldberg’s co-authors are Kristin Bergmann, the D. Reid Weedon, Jr. Career Development Professor in EAPS, along with Theodore Present of Caltech and Seth Finnegan of the University of California at Berkeley.
To estimate Earth’s temperature many millions of years ago, scientists analyze fossils, in particular, remains of ancient shelled organisms that precipitated from seawater and either grew on or sank to the seafloor. When precipitation occurs, the temperature of the surrounding water can change the composition of the shells, altering the relative abundances of two isotopes of oxygen: oxygen-16, and oxygen-18.
“As an example, if carbonate precipitates at 4 degrees Celsius, more oxygen-18 ends up in the mineral, from the same starting composition of water, [compared to] carbonate precipitating at 30 degrees Celsius,” Bergmann explains. “So, the ratio of oxygen-18 to -16 increases as temperature cools.”
In this way, scientists have used ancient carbonate shells to backtrack the temperature of the surrounding seawater — an indicator of the Earth’s overall climate — at the time the shells first precipitated. But this approach has taken scientists only so far, up until the earliest fossils.
“There is about 4 billion years of Earth history where there were no shells, and so shells only give us the last chapter,” Goldberg says.
A clumped isotope signal
The same precipitating reaction in shells also occurs in carbonate mud. But geologists assumed the isotope balance in carbonate muds would be more vulnerable to chemical changes.
“People have often overlooked mud. They thought that if you try to use it as a temperature indicator, you might be looking at not the original ocean temperature in which it formed, but the temperature of a process that occurred later on, when the mud was buried a mile below the surface,” Goldberg says.
To see whether carbonate muds might preserve signatures of their original surrounding temperature, the team used “clumped isotope geochemistry,” a technique used in Bergmann’s lab, which analyzes sediments for clumping, or pairing, of two heavy isotopes: oxygen-18 and carbon-13. The likelihood of these isotopes pairing up in carbonate muds depends on temperature but is unaffected by the ocean chemistry in which the muds form.
Combining this analysis with traditional oxygen isotope measurements provides additional constraints on the conditions experienced by a sample between its original formation and the present. The team reasoned that this analysis could be a good indication of whether carbonate muds remained unchanged in composition since their formation. By extension, this could mean the oxygen-18 to -16 ratio in some muds accurately represents the original temperature at which the rocks formed, enabling their use as a climate record.
The researchers tested their idea on samples of carbonate muds that they extracted from two sites, one in Svalbard, an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, and the other in western Newfoundland. Both sites are known for their exposed rocks that date back to the early Paleozoic era.
In 2016 and 2017, teams traveled first to Svalbard, then Newfoundland, to collect samples of carbonate muds from layers of deposited sediment spanning a period of 70 million years, from the mid-Cambrian, when animals began to flourish on Earth, through the Ordovician periods of the Paleozoic era.
When they analyzed the samples for clumped isotopes, they found that many of the rocks had experienced little chemical change since their formation. They used this result to compile the rocks’ oxygen isotope ratios from 10 different early Paleozoic sites to calculate the temperatures at which the rocks formed. The temperatures calculated from most of these sites were similar to previously published lower-resolution fossil temperature records. In the end, they mapped a timeline of temperature during the early Paleozoic and compared this with the fossil record from that period, to show that temperature had a big effect on the diversity of life on the planet.
“We found that when it was warmer at the end of the Cambrian and early Ordovician, there was also a peak in microbial abundance,” Goldberg says. “From there it cooled off going into the middle to late Ordovician, when we see abundant animal fossils, before a substantial ice age ends the Ordovician. Previously people could only observe general trends using fossils. Because we used a material that’s very abundant, we could create a higher-resolution record and could see more clearly defined ups and downs.”
The team is now looking to analyze older muds, dating back before the appearance of animals, to gauge the Earth’s temperature changes prior to 540 million years ago.
“To go back beyond 540 million years ago, we have to grapple with carbonate muds, because they are really one of the few records we have to constrain climate in the distant past,” Bergmann says.
Header Image – A finger points to a small trilobite fossil from the Ordovician strata in Svalbard, Norway. Image Credit : Adam Jost
Pergamon Timeline - History
Prof. Scott Campbell (Urban & Regional Planning Program, University Of Michigan)
Do you have a suggestion for a new entry (especially entries to broaden, enrich, diversify how we conceive of planning)? Please use this simple google form to enter your suggestion.
PS: to send a correction or modification to an existing entry, you can simply email me.
last updated: October 18, 2020
NOTE: starting/ending dates of eras are often approximate (e.g., "Progressive Era") and should be interpreted as rough outlines of overlapping historical eras.
- important books/publications listed in dark red
- key dates in planning education in green
- notable new towns and projects (including adaptive reuse) in gray shading
- Environmental planning and related themes (sustainability, ecology, climhate change, land conservation, resource management, etc.) noted in the rightmost column ("eco"). This is a potentially broad category, and I have likely omitted important key entries. Please email me additions (see above.)
Hans Carl von Carlowitz. (1713). Sylvicultura Oeconomica, Oder Haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung Zur Wilden Baum-Zucht. Leipzig: Braun. In his book on forestry, the German accountant and administrator developed the idea of sustained yield forestry -- often seen as an antecedent to conceptions of sustainable development. [link to German text]
Pierre L.Enfant plans the capital of the United States
Robert Owen publishes Report to the Committee of the Association for the Relief of the Manufacturing and Labouring Poor. (a proposal for small village communities of 1,200 for the relief of overcrowded towns)
Johann Heinrich von Thünen. 1826. Der isolierte Staat in Beziehung auf Landwirtschaft und Nationalökonomie. Hamburg. ["The Isolated State in Relationship to agriculture and national economics" -- an early effort to conceptualize optimal land use types relative to distance from a central market point. a foundational text in economic geography]
James Silk Buckingham publishes National Evils and Practical Remedies, a proposal for a model town to absorb the unemployed (never built).
The development of Llewellyn Park, an elaborately landscaped villa development in the foothills of New Jersey's Orange Mountains. (one of the first planned American suburbs)
The period of Baron Haussmann intense rebuilding of Paris (starting in about 1855)
Vienna began its Ringstrasse development
Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted began planning the suburb of Riverside, Illinois. (incorporated as a village in 1875). an early example of an American planned community.
Baron Haussmann was forced to resign his position as Prefect of Paris
Benjamin Ward proposes his model city of health called "Hygeia" to promote longevity and lower mortality.
Building of Pullman, Illinois, model industrial town, begun by George Pullman (completed 1884)
First settlement house: Toynbee House in England
Establishment of the Neighborhood Guild in New York's Lower East Side (considered the first settlement house in the US) [link]
Sitte, Camillo. 1889. Der Städte-Bau nach seinen künstlerischen Grundsätzen : ein Beitrag zur Lösung modernster Fragen der Architektur und monumentalen Plastik unter besonderer Beziehung auf Wien. Wien: C. Graeser & Co. [later translated as: City Planning According to Artistic Principles]
Jacob Riis publishes his How the Other Half Lives, a view of the New York slums, which stimulated housing reform.
Columbian Exposition in Chicago (roots of City Beautiful). Main architect: Burnham.
the National Municipal League founded
Ebenezer Howard publishes To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (reprinted in 1902 as Garden Cities of To-Morrow)
"Greater New York" created out of the merger of the five boroughs.
Peter Kropotkin, Fields, Factories and Workshops [link]
the American Society of Landscape Architects founded
Charles M. Robinson publishes The Improvement of Towns and Cities or the Practical Basis of Civic Aesthetics. (New York), which emerged as a key statement of the City Beautiful Movement.
the McMillan Plan for Washington, D.C., redesigning the National Mall, in City Beautiful style
Letchworth constructed (as England's first Garden City, about 30 miles north of London)
Georg Simmel, "Die Großstadt und das Geistesleben" ["The Metropolis and Mental Life"]
The Garden Cities Association of America established (first Vice Pres.: the president of Long Island Railroad)
Stübben, Hermann Josef (1907). Der Städtebau. Stuttgart: A. Kröner. [part of the series Handbuch der Architectur (Handbook of Architecture) later translated as City Building available online both in German and English].
the first city planning commission (in Hartford, CT) established
First National Conference on City Planning in Wash. D.C.
Burnham's Plan of Chicago published (seen as the first regional-oriented plan in the U.S.)
Harvard offers the first course in city planning (in its School of Landscape Architecture)
Forest Hills Garden built as a middle- and upper-income garden city-like development in Queens, NY. (designed by Frederick Olmsted, Jr., and built by the Russell Sage Foundation)
Frederick Winslow Taylor publishes The Principles of Scientific Management, one of the fountainheads of the efficiency movements in the U.S. (including the City Efficient movement).
Perry, Clarence Arthur. 1914. The school as a factor in neighborhood development, by Clarence Arthur Perry, [Russell Sage Foundation, New York Pamphlet]. New York City,: Dept. of Recreation. [an early version of Perry's idea of the neighborhood unit as the foundation of planning]
Geddes, Patrick. 1915. Cities in evolution: an introduction to the town planning movement and to the study of civics. London: Williams & Norgate. [link]
first comprehensive zoning in the US (by New York City Board of Estimates)
American City Planning Institute (ACPI) established, with Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. as 1st president
Bauhaus formed in Germany (Walter Gropius, director 1919 - 1928 later Hannes Meyer and then Ludwig Mies van der Rohe). Closed in 1933 after the Nazi regime comes to power.
Port Authority of New York created. To insure "faithful cooperation in the future planning and development of the port of New York." Empowered to operate "any terminal of transportation facility" within the port district. (later renamed the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey)
Max Weber, Die Stadt. [The City]
Creation of the Regional Planning Association of America ("RPAA") -- a small but influential group including Clarence Stein, Henry Wright, Benton MacKaye, Lewis Mumford, Alexander Bing, Catherine Bauer, and others.
U.S. Dept. of Commerce (under Secretary Herbert Hoover) issues a Standard State Zoning Enabling Act.
Sunnyside Gardens constructed (in New York, designed by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright)
first comprehensive plan officially endorsed by a major US city (Cincinnati)
Ernest Burgess publishes his "concentric zone" model of urban structure and land use.
Le Corbusier exhibits his "Plan Voisin" for Paris (a massively-scaled replacement of central Paris neighborhoods with highrises.) [link]
Survey Graphic Regional Planning Number (1925), edited by Lewis Mumford. [contained the writings of the Regional Planning Association of America]
Le Corbusier. 1925. Urbanisme, Collection de "L'esprit nouveau". Paris: G. Crès & cie. [later translated as The city of to-morrow and its planning]
Village of Euclid vs. Ambler Reality (constitutionality of zoning upheld by Supreme Court)
construction of Radburn, NJ, begun (a Garden City designed by Stein and Wright), located in what is now Fair Lawn, between Paterson and Paramus.
MacKaye, Benton. 1928. The new exploration a philosophy of regional planning. New York,: Harcourt.
26 mayors met in Detroit to appeal for federal support of Depression-hit cities (this group formally became the U.S. Conference of Mayors in 1933)
Wright, Frank Lloyd. 1932. The Disappearing City. New York, W. F. Payson. [Wright presents his idea for the decentralized "Broadacre City"]
Congress creates the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) in May
The Public Works Administration (PWA) created (in May), as part of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
The Civil Works Administration (CWA) created (in November), later folded into the FERA in April, 1934
The National Planning Board established in the Interior Department to assist in the preparation of a comprehensive plan for public works. Its last successor agency, the National Resources Planning Board (NRPB), was abolished in 1943.&dagger
The Tennessee Valley Authority created to provide for unified and multi-purpose rehabilitation and redevelopment of the Tennessee Valley. (the most famous experiment in integrated river basin planning in the U.S.)
Housing Act of 1934 (establishes the FHA)
American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) established.
The U.S. Resettlement Administration established to carry out experiments in land reform and population resettlement. (led by Rexford Tugwell). It built three Greenbelt towns (as early forms of new towns): Greenbelt, Maryland Greendale, Wisconsin and Greenhills, Ohio.
Congress created the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
The Social Security Act passed in August
Cornell offers regional planning classes through a Carnegie Corporation grant (a joint architecture and engineering program) [link]
The U.S. Housing Act (Wagner-Steagall). Set the stage for future government aid by appropriating $500 million in loans for low-cost housing. Tied slum clearance to public housing.
Farm Security Administration established, successor to the Resettlement Administration and administrator of many programs to alleviate the condition of the rural poor
Wirth, Louis. "Urbanism as a Way of Life." American Journal of Sociology 44 (1):1-24.
Homer Hoyt publishes his monograph, The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities, outlining his theory of radial-sector.
ACPI renamed the American Institute of Planners (AIP)
New York World's Fair, which included the "Futurama" exhibit, designed by Norman Bell Geddes, at the General Motors Pavilion. The exhibit presented a vision of the rationally-planned city of the future, with superhighways and multi-leveled streets.
Servicemans Readjustment Act ("G.I. Bill"). Guaranteed loans for homes to veterans under urban favorable terms (which, in turn, accelerated suburbanization after the war).
Hayek, Friedrich. 1944. The Road to Serfdom. London: Routledge. [an argument for the benefits of decentralized markets and against centralized planning]
the Full Employment Act of 1946
the Housing and Home Finance Agency (predecessor of HUD) created to coordinate federal governments various housing programs.
Construction of Levittown, NY, begun (a private-sector development to sell affordable houses to the new white middle-class with their FHA loans).
Coursework began at University of Chicago's Program for Education and Research in Planning [a pathbreaking, interdisciplinary planning program, treating planning as an applied social science rather than as an extension of architecture]. program terminated in 1956. &dagger
Housing Act of 1949 (Wagner-Ellender-Taft Bill). Aimed to provide about 800,000 units to be constructed over a period of six years. First U.S. comprehensive housing legislation. Title I: federal funding for slum clearance Title II: Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgage insurance Title III: federal funding for public housing. "The law was the product of seven years of bitter legislative stalemate and a shotgun wedding between enemy lobbying groups. It set lofty goals&mdashto eliminate slums and blighted areas and provide a decent home for every American family&mdashbut provided only the limited mechanisms of public housing and urban renewal to meet them" (von Hoffman, Alexander. 2000. "A study in contradictions: The origins and legacy of the housing act of 1949." Housing Policy Debate 11 (2):299).
Gruen, Victor and Smith, Lawrence P. "Shopping Center: The New Building Type. Progressive Architecture, June 1952, pp. 67&ndash109. [one of many of Gruen's early postwar writings on the shopping mall]
the Housing Act of 1954 (created the Urban Planning Assistance Program to aid states and localities). Also gave federal grants for councils of governments and other metropolitan planning agencies (early federal support for regional coordination). &dagger
In Berman vs. Parker, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the right of Washington, D.C. Redevelopment Land Agency to condemn properties which are unsightly though nondeteriorated if required to achieve objectives of duly established area redevelopment plan.
Meyerson, Martin, and Edward C. Banfield. 1955. Politics, planning, and the public interest the case of public housing in Chicago, Glencoe, Ill. Free Press. [emphasizes the political nature of planning and the link between planning, urban politics and public support]
Passage of the U.S. Federal-Aid Highway Act (popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act)
Development of Brasília, the new capital of of Brazil (planner: Lucio Costa architect: Oscar Niemeyer). Inaugurated in 1960.
Isard, Walter. 1956. Location and Space-Economy. New York: The Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and John Wiley & Sons. [the foundational text by the "father" of regional science]
Tiebout, Charles M. 1956. "A pure theory of local public expenditures." Journal of Political Economy no. 64 (3):416&ndash424. [the classic statement of the "Tiebout Model"]
Perloff, H. 1957. Education for Planning: City, State, and Region. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Chapin, F. Stuart. 1957. Urban land use planning. New York: Harper. [the first of many versions/editions of this standard text]
Regional Science Department established by the University of Pennsylvania (chair: Walter Isard) department closed in 1993. &dagger
Lindblom, C.E 1959. "The Science of 'Muddling Through," Public Administration Review 19 79-88. [seminal article on incremental planning]
Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City, MIT Press, Cambridge MA.
Lewis Mumford, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, Harcourt, Brace & World (New York).
Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities [strongly criticized contemporary city planning and large-scale urban renewal, and argued that vibrant city life needed diversity, density, small-blocks, mixed-uses and vibrant streets and sidewalks for people, not just cars.]
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Houghton Mifflin). [a foundational text in the modern environmental movement]
Destruction of the above-ground portion of historic Pennsylvania Station -- the main train station in New York City, designed by McKim, Mead and White and completed in 1910. The failed protests against the demolition helped trigger the historic preservation movement.
the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
The 1964 Urban Mass Transportation Act
Kent, T.J. 1964. The Urban General Plan. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing. [a foundational text by the founder of the UC Berkeley city planning program]
Anderson, Martin. 1964. The Federal bulldozer a critical analysis of urban renewal, 1949-1962, Cambridge,: M.I.T. Press.
Gruen, Victor. 1964. The heart of our cities the urban crisis: diagnosis and cure. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Alonso, William. 1964. Location and Land Use. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. [an early, influential text on regional science. Alonso was a student of Walter Isard at Penn's regional science program.]
the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 creates the Economic Development Administration (EDA)
the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (HUD) to replace the old Housing and Home Finance Agency &dagger
Davidoff, Paul. "Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning." Journal of the American Institute of Planners no. 31 (4):544-555. [seminal article on advocacy planning] [link to the Davidoff Tapes Project at UMass Boston]
Altshuler, A.A. 1965. The City Planning Process: A Political Analysis Ithaca, New York Cornell University Press.
the 1966 Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act (including the Model Cities program)
Babcock, Richard F. 1966. The zoning game municipal practices and policies. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. [helped assert the centrality of land use controls in community planning]
Urban Riots/Rebellions in Detroit, Newark and other cities (July)
Bacon, Edmund N. 1967. Design of cities. New York: Viking Press. [influential book based on Bacon's years as director of planning in Philadelphia]
Metropolitan Council (Minneapolis/St. Paul and surrounding region) created [a model of comprehensive regional planning]
the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968
The New Communities Act of 1968 (which guaranteed private financial for private entrepreneurs to plan and develop new communities)
Garrett Hardin, 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, Vol. 162 no. 3859, pp. 1243-1248
NEPA: The National Environmental Policy Act (requiring an EIS for every federal or federally-aided state or local major action that would affect the environment)
McHarg, Ian L. Design with nature. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press.
National Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established. Administers the main provisions of the Clean Air Act (1970).
California passes the Coastal Zone Management Act (leading to the California Coastal Commission)
Beginning of destruction of Pruitt-Igoe public housing projects (St. Louis)
Castells, Manuel. 1972. La question urbaine. Paris,: F. Maspero. [later translated as The Urban Question]
The 1973 Oregon Statewide Land Use Law (leading to urban growth boundaries)
David Harvey, Social Justice and the City
Rittel, Horst W.J., and Melvin M. Webber. 1973. "Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning." Policy Sciences Vol. 4:155-169. [introduces the idea of urban social problems as "wicked problems"]
Lee, Douglas. 1973. "Requiem for Large Scale Models." Journal of the American Institute of Planners (May).
Housing and Community Development Act of 1974. It establishes the block grant (CDBG), as opposed to the categorical grant, as the main form of federal aid for local development.
Henri Lefebvre, La production de l'espace, Paris: Anthropos. [later translated as The Production of Space]
Caro, Robert. 1974. The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. New York: Alfred Knopf.
Peter Hall presents "Green Fields and Gray Areas" at the Royal Town Planning Institute Annual Conference (1977) promoting the &ldquofree port&rdquo idea for decaying neighborhoods, which would later emerge as the "enterprise zone" concept. see also: Hall, P. (1982). Enterprise zones: a justification. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 6(3), 416-421.
Hawaii becomes the first state to institute statewide zoning.
ASPO and AIP combined into the American Planning Association (APA)
William H. Whyte, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation.
Bluestone, Barry, and Bennett Harrison. 1982. The Deindustrialization of America. New York: Basic Books.
United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), "Our Common Future" (commonly known as "the Brundtland Report"). [an important landmark in the development of the sustainability movement]
Harvey, David. 1989. The Condition of Post-Modernity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Soja, Edward. 1989. Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory. London: Verso Press.
The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). Federal law encouraging intermodal transportation policies, and granting new powers to Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs).
New Jersey's State Development and Redevelopment plan adopted.
The Congress of New Urbanism (CNU) founded by Duany, Moule, Plater-Zyberk, and others.
The Regional Plan Association publishes A Region at Risk: the Third Regional Plan
Completion of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in the Basque region of Spain (construction began in 1993), designed by Frank Gehry. Hence the term: "Bilbao Effect" (the idea that building a high-profile cultural institution, designed by a prominent architect, will trigger increased media attention, tourism, cultural activity and investment)
the Georgia legislature creates the Georgia Regional Transportation Agency (GRTA) to address sprawl in Atlanta
The US Supreme Court rules in favor of eminent domain authority in the case Kelo v. City of New London
Sources include: many readings from my planning theory/history course (URP500) and elsewhere plus Albert Guttenberg's "Some Important Facts in the History of American Planning," Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 7 (1). see also the APA's "100 Essential Books of Planning."&dagger" indicates a link to a source on this accompanying page. Special thanks to Robert Fishman for numerous suggestions. Additional thanks to Bri Gauger,
Online google form to suggest new entries here. Please email me corrections/modifications to exisiting entries.
Galenus of Pergamon – The most Accomplished Physician of Antiquity
In 129 AD , Greek physician , surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire Aelius Galenus also referred to as Claudius Galenus was born. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity , Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines , including anatomy, physiology , pathology , pharmacology , and neurology , as well as philosophy and logic .
“Employment is Nature’s physician, and is essential to human happiness.”
— attributed to Galenus, In: Day’s Collacon: an Encyclopaedia of Prose Quotations, (1884), p. 223.
Aelius Galenus – Early Years
Aelius Galenus was born in Pergamon (modern-day Bergama, Turkey) which was a major cultural and intellectual centre. It was famous for its library and attracted both Stoic and Platonic philosophers, to whom Galen was exposed at early age. Even though it was intended that Galen should study philosophy, his father changed his mind and at age 16, he began his four year studies at the Asclepieum dedicated to Asclepius, god of medicine. After the death of his father, Galen was financially independent and started traveling to Corinth, Crete, Cicilia, and Cyprus. This was followed by the medical school of Alexandria where Galen exposed himself to various schools of thought and medicine.
Physician to the Gladiators
Around the age of 28, Galen returned to Pergamon as a physician to the gladiators of the High Priest of Asia. There he learned the importance of diet, fitness and hygiene. He studied anatomy and the treatment of fractures and traumas. It is believed that only five death occurred among the gladiators during his time there, which is low compared to the sixty deaths which occurred in his predecessor’s time.
Court Physician in Rome
Around 162, Galen traveled to Rome in order to become a practicing physician there. However, he had severe conflicts with other physicians there and feared to be poisoned or exiled so he left the city. In 169 when the great plague broke out, the emperor summoned him back to Rome. He was ordered to accompany Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Versus to Germany as the court physician. During the following spring however, Galen was left behind to act as physician to the imperial heir Commodus . There, Galen was able to write extensively on his medical studies. Galen was the physician to Commodus for much of the emperor’s life and treated his common illnesses. He later became physician to Septimius Severus during his reign in Rome.
Galenus of Pergamon probably passed away around the year 199. However, the sources on his death date differ.
The Unit of Body and Soul
Galen’s main medical work is the Methodus medendi, it consists of 14 books. The guiding principle here is that all phenomena in nature and in man fulfill a certain purpose. Galen understood man as a unit of body and soul, influenced on two sides, by the spiritual and by matter. He adopted the four-element doctrine developed in philosophy, according to which fire, earth, air and water in different compositions represent the basic elements of all being. He also continued the four-juice theory already developed in Hippocratic medicine, which assigned the four qualities (primary qualities) warm and moist, cold and moist, warm and dry and cold and dry to the four body juices blood, mucus, yellow bile and black bile. The four qualities of taste postulated by Galen (secondary qualities) are: Blood – sweet, mucus – salty, yellow bile – bitter, black bile – sour and hot. He also linked the four juices to the four phases of human life. Disease was for him a dyscrasia, a faulty mixture of juices. Galen attached particular importance to the examination of pulse and urine in the diagnosis of diseases.
Pathological changes in the well-balanced mixture of juices, which can be seen by heating, moistening, catching a cold or drying out the affected body parts, must be counteracted with counteracting drugs. In this context, the attraction of a part of the body to certain drugs, which could be caused by their similar nature on an elementary level, had to be taken into account. The pharmacology of the Islamic and Occidental cultural regions was oriented towards the complicated recipes of Galen until the late Middle Ages. Only under the influence of Paracelsus ‘s medical teachings did the theory of the manufacture and preparation of medicines, known as galenics, lose its importance in the course of the early modern period.
Sections and Vivisections
Galenus carried out extensive sections and vivisections on animals and wrote nearly 400 writings, which were combined in 70 books after his death by Oribasius (326-403). Almost a quarter of these have been preserved in the Greek original or in Latin, Arabic or Syrian translations. Until the 17th century and beyond, they served as the basis for medical teaching at universities.